Velopharyngeal dysfunction: speech characteristics, variable etiologies, evaluation techniques, and differential treatments.

Abstract

This tutorial addresses the complex pathophysiology; various structural and neurologic causes; methods of clinical appraisal; and alternative behavioral prosthetic, and medicosurgical treatments of velopharyngeal dysfunction. To balance the primary focus of this review on hypernasal resonance and articulation disorders, discussions concerning hyponasal… (More)

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