Velocity Profiles and Unsteady Pipe Friction in Transient Flow

@article{Brunone2000VelocityPA,
  title={Velocity Profiles and Unsteady Pipe Friction in Transient Flow},
  author={Bruno Brunone and Bryan W Karney and Michele Mecarelli and Marco Ferrante},
  journal={Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management},
  year={2000},
  volume={126},
  pages={236-244}
}
Transient conditions in closed conduits have traditionally been modeled as 1D flows with the implicit assumption that velocity profile and friction losses can be accurately predicted using equivalent 1D velocities. Although more complex fluid models have been suggested, there has been little direct experimental basis for selecting one model over another. This paper briefly reviews the significance of the 1D assumption and the historical approaches proposed for improving the numerical modeling… 

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