Vegetative Anatomy of the New Caledonian Endemic Amborella trichopoda: Relationships with the Illiciales and Implications for Vessel Origin

  title={Vegetative Anatomy of the New Caledonian Endemic Amborella trichopoda: Relationships with the Illiciales and Implications for Vessel Origin},
  author={Sherwin John Carlquist and Edward L. Schneider},
  journal={Pacific Science},
  pages={305 - 312}
Light microscopy was used to study leaf hypodermis, vein sclerenchyma, stomatal subsidiary cell types, and stem and root xylem in liquid-preserved material of Amborella trichopoda; oblique borders on tracheid pits, scalariform end walls on tracheids, and porosities in end-wall pit membranes were studied with scanning electron microscopy. Amborella shares stomatal configurations, nodal type (in part), ray types, and porose pit membranes in tracheary elements with llliciaies s.l., but differs… 

Specialized structures in the leaf epidermis of basal angiosperms: morphology, distribution, and homology.

The morphology of specialized structures in the leaf epidermis of 32 species of basal angiosperms, representing all seven families and 11 of 14 genera, was investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy.

Bordered pits in xylem of vesselless angiosperms and their possible misinterpretation as perforation plates.

Results indicate that pit membrane shrinkage is irreversible and associated with a considerable increase in pore size, and suggest that pit membranes damage, which may occur in planta, could explain earlier records of vessels in vesselless angiosperms.

Roots Structure and Development of Austrobaileya scandens (Austrobaileyaceae) and Implications for Their Evolution in Angiosperms

Roots structure and anatomy of A. scandens are thus essentially similar to some previously described in Amborella or Illicium in the ANA grade and many magnoliids, and suggest that the first woody flowering plants likely had an open RAM with common initials.

New vesselless angiosperm stem with a cambial variant from the Upper Cretaceous of Antarctica

We sectioned a permineralized stem preserved in marine calcareous concretions from the Campanian (Upper Cretaceous) of James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula using the cellulose-acetate peel

Xylem of early angiosperms: Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) has novel tracheid microstructure1.

Microstructural patterns reported here for stem tracheid pits of Nymphaeaceae are not like those of Chloranthaceae, Illiciaceae, or other basal angiosperms, and are not referable to any of the patterns reported for early vascular plants.

Fruit structure of Amborella trichopoda (Amborellaceae)

The indehiscent fruitlets of the apparently basalmost extant angiosperm, Amborella trichopoda, have a pericarp that is differentiated into five zones, a thin one-cell-layered skin (exocarp), a thick

Ecpagloxylon mathiesenii gen. nov. et sp. nov., a Jurassic wood from Greenland with several primitive angiosperm features

Fossil wood specimens from the late Early–early Middle Jurassic of Jameson Land, Eastern Greenland, have several unexpected features: tracheids of irregular size and shape, thinly pitted ray cell

Xylem heterochrony: an unappreciated key to angiosperm origin and diversifications.

Xylem heterochrony is analysed not only for all key groups of angiosperms (including monocots), but also for different growth forms, such as lianas, annuals, various types of perennials, rosette trees and stem succulents.

Pit membrane remnants in perforation plates of Hydrangeales with comments on pit membrane remnant occurrence, physiological significance and phylogenetic distribution in dicotyledons

Developmental study of the mechanism and timing of lysis of pit membranes in perforation plates, and assessment of the role of the conductive stream in their removal, are needed to enhance present under standing of vessel evolution.



Observations on the vegetative anatomy of Austrobaileya: habital, organographic and phylogenetic conclusions

Comparisons between vessel-bearing and vesselless families must depend on fewer features, Amborellaceae and Winteraceae have no features incompatible with their inclusion in an expanded Illiciales.

Presence of vessels in wood of Sarcandra (Chloranthaceae); comments on vessel origins in angiosperms

Sarcandra is the only genus of Chloranthaceae hitherto thought to be vesselless. Study of liquid-preserved material of S. glabra revealed that in root secondary xylem some tracheary elements are

Wood and bark anatomy of Schisandraceae: implications for phylogeny, habit, and vessel evolution

Larger pits on tracheids, wider and shorter vessel elements, and a high figure for conductive area per mm2 of transection are features related to the scandent habit of Schisandraceae; opposing character states in Illic ium relate to the self-supporting nature of growth forms in that genus.

Vessel origins in Nymphaeaceae: Euryale and Victoria

Vessel origins in Nymphaeaceae are important in illustrating that there may be multiple vessel origins in dicotyledons, and Euryale satisfies one criterion for the presence of vessel and Barclaya satisfies another (perforations in end walls), whereas Barclaya and Victoria satisfies both.

Vessel origin in Cabomba

Presence of pores qualifies tracheary elements of the nodal plexus in stems of Cabomba aquatica and C. caroliniana as vessel elements, but the vessel elements differ from any hitherto described for vascular plants and thereby enhance the likelihood of polyphylesis of vessels in dicotyledons.

Are the angiosperms primitively vesselless

  • D. Young
  • Environmental Science, Biology
  • 1981
The hypothesis that angiosperms are primitively vesselless was tested in the context of a cladistic analysis of selected families of the Magnoliidae, Ra- nunculidae, and Hamamelididae and it is suggested that the xylem of these genera is paedomorphic.

Parallelism and Reversibility in Xylem Evolution a Review

It appears that for these major Baileyan transformation series, parallelisms were more than twice as common as reversals.

The earliest angiosperms: evidence from mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear genomes

This study demonstrates that Amboreella, Nymphaeales and Illiciales-Trimeniaceae-Austrobaileya represent the first stage of angiosperm evolution, with Amborella being sister to all other angiosperms, and shows that Gnetales are related to the conifers and are not sister to the angios perms, thus refuting the Anthophyte Hypothesis.

Vessels in Nymphaeaceae: Nuphar, Nymphaea, and Ondinea

In Nuphar and Nymphaea, metaxylem elements have helical-reticulate wall thickenings, but end walls of tracheary elements have at least some scalariform pitting; in Ondinea, end walls are identical to side walls.

Utility of wood anatomical characters in cladistic analyses

The standard IAWA List of wood anatomical characters are discussed, which are defined primarily for identification, and recast them in a format that is more appropriate for cladistic analysis.