Veganism, vegetarianism, bone mineral density, and fracture risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

@article{Iguacel2019VeganismVB,
  title={Veganism, vegetarianism, bone mineral density, and fracture risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis},
  author={Isabel Iguacel and Mar{\'i}a Luisa Miguel-Berges and Alejandro G{\'o}mez-Bruton and Luis Alberto Moreno and Cristina Azcona San Juli{\'a}n},
  journal={Nutrition Reviews},
  year={2019},
  volume={77},
  pages={1–18}
}
Context The numbers of vegans and vegetarians have increased in the last decades. [...] Key MethodData Sources A systematic search was conducted of PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct, covering the period from the respective start date of each database to November 2017. Expand
Vegetarianism and veganism compared with mental health and cognitive outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
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A meta-analysis found that vegan or vegetarian diets were related to a higher risk of depression and lower anxiety scores, but no differences for other outcomes were found. Expand
Effects of vegetarianism on bone mineral density
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Differences in Bone Mineral Density between Adult Vegetarians and Nonvegetarians Become Marginal when Accounting for Differences in Anthropometric Factors.
TLDR
Findings suggest that lower BMD among adult vegetarians is in larger parts explained by lower BMI and waist circumference. Expand
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Plant-based diets were associated with lower BMDs than those of an omnivore population, and both vegetarians and vegans exhibited lower lumbar spine, femoral neck, and whole-body B MDs than omnivores. Expand
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The study provides evidence of lower bone health in vegans compared to omnivores, additionally revealing a combination of nutrition-related biomarkers, which may contribute to bone health. Expand
Vitamin B12 status is a risk factor for bone fractures among vegans.
TLDR
Considering the widespread B12 deficiency prevalence among vegans, its role in bone fracture risk should not be overlooked. Expand
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Results of several prospective longitudinal studies failed to show a harmful effect of vegetarianism on bone health and in the Taiwanese adult population, researchers also did not find that a vegetarian diet significantly affects age-related BMD decline. Expand
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An overview of the studies carried out to examine the effect/s of CR, IF and vegetarian/vegan diets on bone health, and, in particular, on bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk is provided. Expand
The Impact of Vegan Diet in the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review
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It is found that a vegan diet is associated with lower T2D prevalence or incidence and in T1D patients decreases high glucose values and improves glucose homeostasis, as reported from the majority of included studies. Expand
The Belgian Bone Club 2020 guidelines for the management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
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BBC guidelines and 25 guideline recommendations bridge the gap between research and clinical practice for the screening, diagnosis, and management of osteoporosis. Expand
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BMD shows an age-related decline in Taiwanese men and women, and eating a vegetarian diet does not appear to affect this decline, and no statistical differences in BMD were observed between vegetarians and non-vegetarians of either sex. Expand
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The results suggest that vegetarian diets, particularly vegan diets, are associated with lower BMD, but the magnitude of the association is clinically insignificant. Expand
Do vegetarians have a normal bone mass?
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From data available and given the limitations stipulated above, “vegetarians” do certainly appear to have “normal” bone mass, and the challenge is to determine what components of a vegetarian diet are of particular benefit to bone, at what levels and under which mechanisms. Expand
Veganism, bone mineral density, and body composition: a study in Buddhist nuns
SummaryThis cross-sectional study showed that, although vegans had lower dietary calcium and protein intakes than omnivores, veganism did not have adverse effect on bone mineral density and did notExpand
Bone mineral density in Chinese elderly female vegetarians, vegans, lacto-vegetarians and omnivores
TLDR
The BMD at the hip was lower in vegetarians than omnivores, but no difference was observed between `vegans' and `lactovegetarians', and there is a complex relationship between the intake of various nutrient and BMD in vegetarian. Expand
Vegetarianism, bone loss, fracture and vitamin D: a longitudinal study in Asian vegans and non-vegans
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Vegan diet did not have adverse effect on bone loss and fracture, and corticosteroid use and high intakes of animal protein and animal lipid were negatively associated with bone loss. Expand
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A small positive effect of protein supplementation on lumbar spine BMD in randomized placebo-controlled trials supports the positive association between protein intake and bone health found in cross-sectional surveys, but these results were not supported by cohort study findings for hip fracture risk. Expand
Long-Term Vegetarian Diet and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Taiwanese Women
TLDR
Identification of effective nutrition supplements may be necessary to improve lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density levels and to reduce the risk of osteoporosis among long-term female vegetarians. Expand
Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford
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In this population, fracture risk was similar for meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians, but the higher fracture risk in the vegans appeared to be a consequence of their considerably lower mean calcium intake. Expand
Bone mineral density of Korean postmenopausal women is similar between vegetarians and nonvegetarians
Abstract The present study was performed to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD), nutrient intakes, and mineral status of postmenopausal vegetarian women in Korea. The 2 study groups consisted ofExpand
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