Vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide inhibit interleukin-12 transcription by regulating nuclear factor kappaB and Ets activation.

The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the structurally related neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) act as "macrophage-deactivating factors". We showed previously that VIP and PACAP inhibit the production of macrophage-derived tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, nitric oxide, and IL-12. This study… CONTINUE READING