Vasoactive characteristics of bupivacaine and levobupivacaine with and without adjuvant epinephrine in peripheral human skin.

@article{Newton2005VasoactiveCO,
  title={Vasoactive characteristics of bupivacaine and levobupivacaine with and without adjuvant epinephrine in peripheral human skin.},
  author={David J Newton and G Mcleod and Faisel Khan and Jill J F Belch},
  journal={British journal of anaesthesia},
  year={2005},
  volume={94 5},
  pages={662-7}
}
BACKGROUND Epinephrine is added to local anaesthetic preparations to prolong their action and reduce their systemic absorption. Bupivacaine and levobupivacaine cause vasodilatation at clinical doses, but lower doses appear to cause vasoconstriction. The aim of this study was to characterize fully the vasoactive effects of these anaesthetics, using an objective measure of blood flow, and to assess the influence of adding epinephrine. METHODS Laser Doppler imaging was used to measure the… CONTINUE READING

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The influence of vehicle resistance on transdermal iontophoretic drug delivery in humans

  • F Khan, DJ Newton, JJF. Belch
  • J Appl Physiol
  • 2004

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