Vasculature of the parotoid glands of four species of toads (bufonidae: bufo)

  title={Vasculature of the parotoid glands of four species of toads (bufonidae: bufo)},
  author={Deborah A. Hutchinson and Alan H. Savitzky},
  journal={Journal of Morphology},
The parotoid glands of toads (Bufonidae) consist of large aggregations of granular glands located between the otic region of the skull and the scapular region. To determine the circulatory pattern of these glands, we perfused the vascular systems of Bufo alvarius, B. marinus, B. terrestris, and B. valliceps with either India ink or Microfil, a fine latex. The perfused glands were studied by gross dissection, microscopic examination, and histology. The vascular patterns of the parotoid glands… 
Morphological re-evaluation of the parotoid glands of Bufo ictericus (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae)
A re-evaluation of the morphology of the parotoid glands of Bufo ictericus is provided, which shows rounded depressions with small pores that connect with the duct openings of the larger granular glands.
Variation in Bufadienolide Composition of Parotoid Gland Secretion From Three Taxa of Japanese Toads.
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Sex and weaponry: The distribution of toxin‐storage glands on the bodies of male and female cane toads (Rhinella marina)
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Early studies of nuchal glands are reviewed and recent findings on the sequestration of bufadienolides from consumed toads and the maternal provisioning of those sequestered compounds are introduced.
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Morphology of the parotoid macroglands in Phyllomedusa leaf frogs
The morphology of the macroglands of P. distincta, a leaf frog endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, is focused on, suggesting that the term parotoid should be used only for those of bufonids.
Toad Parotoid Pores Shelter Tick Larvae
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Serous Cutaneous Glands in Phyllobates bicolor (Anura: Dendrobatidae): An Ontogenetic, Ultrastructural Study on Secretory Product Biosynthesis and Maturation
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Use of Chemical Ecology for control of the cane toad
How diverse the chemical composition of cane toad skin secretions is is, as well as its variability across life-history stages, between individuals and also whether different populations of toads may show differences in their chemistry is looked at.
Chemical Evidence for Dietary Toxin Sequestration in the Asian Snake Rhabdophis tigrinus
R. tigrinus is the first amniote vertebrate known to have evolved specialized defensive structures dependent upon sequestered dietary compounds, either obtained directly from prey or provisioned by the dam.


The anatomy of the parotoid gland in Bufonidae with some histochemical findings II. Bufo alvarius
The gross and microscopic anatomy of the venom producing parotoid glands of Bufo alvarius has been studied by light and electron microscopy. Histochemical reactions for the presence of venom
The morphology of amphibian skin vascularization before and after metamorphosis
It is suggested that the reduced skin vascularization in anuran tadpoles is an advanced larval character relative to the rich vascularization of the skin in urodele larvae and has a reduced ability to utilize gaseous exchange through the skin.
Histochemistry of mucus in the skin of the frog, Rana pipiens
Histochemical characteristics of the integumentary mucous glands of the leopard frog (Rana pipiens) are described so that their role in water balance can be better understood. Mucus is acidic, due to
Model of skin vascularization in Rana esculenta L.: Scanning electron microscopy of microcorrosion casts
SummaryMicrocorrosion casts of blood vessels in the skin of Rana esculenta L. were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy with particular reference to the subepidermal network of
Adaptations in the water economy of some anuran amphibia.
  • C. U. Christensen
  • Environmental Science
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. A, Comparative physiology
  • 1974
Vascular supply to the ventral pelvic region of anurans as related to water balance
  • J. Roth
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of morphology
  • 1973
Nine species representing four genera of terrestrial and aquatic Anura were dissected for comparison of vascularity in the pelvic area and major differences in the ventral pelvic integumental vessels were found between aquatic and terrestrial genera.