Vascular rejection in heart transplantation: clinical correlation, treatment options, and future considerations.

Vascular rejection injures the vascular endothelium in cardiac allografts in the absence of significant intramyocardial lymphocytic infiltration. When compared with cellular rejection, vascular rejection occurs earlier after transplantation, is more resistant to immunosuppressive augmentation, causes more allograft dysfunction, and is associated with a… (More)