Vascular endothelial growth factor and its correlation with superficial bladder cancer recurrence rates and stage progression.

Abstract

Because of the heterogeneous behavior of superficial bladder cancer, the development of additional simple diagnostic and prognostic tests will be invaluable. The authors have demonstrated significantly elevated levels of urinary VEGF in patients with active bladder cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of urinary VEGF for diagnosing primary or recurrent… (More)

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