Vascular calcification and osteoporosis—from clinical observation towards molecular understanding

@article{Hofbauer2006VascularCA,
  title={Vascular calcification and osteoporosis—from clinical observation towards molecular understanding},
  author={Lorenz C. Hofbauer and Carol Brueck and Catherine M. Shanahan and Michael Schoppet and Harald Dobnig},
  journal={Osteoporosis International},
  year={2006},
  volume={18},
  pages={251-259}
}
Patients with osteoporosis frequently suffer from vascular calcification, which was shown to predict both cardiovascular morbidity/mortality and osteoporotic fractures. Various common risk factors and mechanisms have been suggested to cause both bone loss and vascular calcification, including aging, estrogen deficiency, vitamin D and K abnormalities, chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Major breakthroughs in molecular and cellular biology of bone metabolism and the characterization of… 

Bone Health in Patients with Dyslipidemias: An Underestimated Aspect

TLDR
The purpose of this narrative review is to provide epidemiological evidence regarding the prevalence of bone disease (osteoporosis, fracture risk) in patients with dyslipidemias and to discuss potential common pathophysiological mechanisms linking osteoporoses and atherosclerosis.

Osteoprotegerin, vascular calcification and atherosclerosis.

Anti-Osteoporotic Drugs and Vascular Calcification: The Bidirectional Calcium Traffic

TLDR
Current research is focusing on anti-osteoporotic agents that could potentially affect the deposition of calcium in the arterial wall and thus provide an additional therapeutic strategy in elderly osteoporosis women prone to calcific cardiovascular disease.

Impact of Disturbances of Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism on Vascular Calcification and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

TLDR
It remains to be demonstrated in prospective randomized trials whether normalization of serum phosphorus and/or calcium leads to better patient outcome, and to improve outcome in patients with CKD-MBD, early medical intervention is of utmost importance.

Statins, bone formation and osteoporosis: hope or hype?

TLDR
Possibly in the future, drugs which can intervene in this biochemical and pathophysiological cascade, like statins, in a variety of doses, could be used for the management of ectopic ossification syndromes and other bone disorders, even as an additive treatment.

Calcification of Cardiac Valves in Metabolic Bone Disease: An Updated Review of Clinical Studies

TLDR
Most of the literature data confirm that cardiac valve calcification processes are strongly influenced by alterations in bone metabolism, and the patients with osteoporosis or primary hyperparathyroidism have an acceleration in the process of valvular calcification.

Vascular Calcification: New Insights Into BMP Type I Receptor A

TLDR
The role of BMPR1A in vascular calcification and the possible underlying molecular mechanisms to provide clues for the clinical treatment of such diseases are reviewed.

Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis: age-dependent degenerative processes or related entities?

TLDR
This review considers a potential link between osteoporosis and atherosclerosis beyond aging and the use of statins, biphosphonates, beta-blockers and experimental dual-purpose therapies based on the biological linkage of the above entities may simultaneously benefit bone loss and vascular disease.

Cosegregation of cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis: instrumental diagnosis.

  • C. CepollaroR. MonacoG. Marcucci
  • Medicine
    Clinical cases in mineral and bone metabolism : the official journal of the Italian Society of Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism, and Skeletal Diseases
  • 2008
TLDR
A single IVA exam could assist in stratifying patients into high and low risk groups for two highly prevalent and significant health care problems, and a new method for the evaluation of aorta calcification by dual X-Ray absorptiometry (DXA).

The Relationship Between Coronary Artery Calcification and Bone Mineral Density in Patients According to Their Metabolic Syndrome Status

TLDR
BMD was inversely correlated with CAC only in patients with metabolic syndrome, which suggests that low BMD accompanied by MetS, may have significant clinical implications.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 68 REFERENCES

Low bone density and abnormal bone turnover in patients with atherosclerosis of peripheral vessels.

TLDR
High occurrence of osteoporosis in VD is proved, with evidence of age and gender independence, and negative bone remodelling balance would be a consequence of reduced bone formation, with no apparent increased activation of the OPG–RANKL system.

Pathogenesis of osteoporosis: concepts, conflicts, and prospects.

  • L. Raisz
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Journal of clinical investigation
  • 2005
TLDR
This review examines the fundamental pathogenetic mechanisms underlying osteoporosis, which include: (a) failure to achieve a skeleton of optimal strength during growth and development; (b) excessive bone resorption resulting in loss of bone mass and disruption of architecture; and (c) Failure to replace lost bone due to defects in bone formation.

Active serum vitamin D levels are inversely correlated with coronary calcification.

TLDR
Vitamin D is also known to be important in bone mineralization; thus, 1,25-vitamin D may be one factor to explain the long observed association between osteoporosis and vascular calcification.

Molecular, endocrine, and genetic mechanisms of arterial calcification.

TLDR
Two major pathological types of arterial calcification are reviewed, the proposed models of calcification, and endocrine and genetic determinants that affect arterial Calcification are outlined, and areas requiring further investigation are highlighted.

Bone Morphogenetic Proteins in Vascular Calcification

TLDR
The role of BMP-2 in vascular calcification is not proven, but it has been the most studied member of the BMP family in this disease process, and it may be through inducing osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs through induction of MSX-2, or by inducing apoptosis ofVSMCs, a process thought critical in the initiation ofascular calcification.

Matrix Gla protein and osteopontin genetic associations with coronary artery calcification and bone density: the CARDIA study

TLDR
The aim has been to investigate whether matrix Gla protein (MGP), osteopontin (SPP1) T-443C, and Asp94Asp single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with the development of arterial calcification and bone density.

Vascular calcification: mechanisms and clinical ramifications.

TLDR
Evidence indicates that proteins controlling bone mineralization are also involved in the regulation of vascular calcification, a complex, regulated process of biomineralization resembling osteogenesis, which is widely used as a clinical indicator of atherosclerosis.

Aortic calcification and the risk of osteoporosis and fractures.

TLDR
Aortic calcifications are a strong predictor for low bone density and fragility fractures and a strong graded association was observed between the progression of vascular calcification and bone loss for each quartile.

Osteoprotegerin Inhibits Artery Calcification Induced by Warfarin and by Vitamin D

TLDR
Dosages of osteoprotegerin that inhibit bone resorption are able to potently inhibit the calcification of arteries that is induced by warfarin treatment and by vitamin D treatment, and these results support the hypothesis that arterial calcification is linked to bone Resorption.

osteoprotegerin-deficient mice develop early onset osteoporosis and arterial calcification.

TLDR
It is demonstrated that OPG is a critical regulator of postnatal bone mass and regulation of OPG, its signaling pathway, or its ligand(s) may play a role in the long observed association between osteoporosis and vascular calcification.
...