Vascular accidents after neck manipulation: cause or coincidence?

@article{Ernst2010VascularAA,
  title={Vascular accidents after neck manipulation: cause or coincidence?},
  author={E. Ernst},
  journal={International Journal of Clinical Practice},
  year={2010},
  volume={64}
}
  • E. Ernst
  • Published 2010
  • Medicine
  • International Journal of Clinical Practice
  • The statistician Austin Bradford Hill (1897–1991) is credited with listing the minimal conditions which are required for establishing that an association (e.g. manipulation and stroke) is causal by nature (e.g. manipulation causes stroke) (9). His nine criteria are well established and form the basis for evaluating causality in many areas of research. In the following, I will apply them to the question whether vascular accidents after neck manipulation are cause or coincidence. 
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