Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels in Bile Distinguishes Pancreatic Cancer from Other Etiologies of Biliary Stricture: A Pilot Study

Determining the benign or malignant nature of biliary strictures can be challenging. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in tumor angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether VEGF levels in bile aspirated during endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) can distinguish pancreatic cancer from other… CONTINUE READING