Varroa destructor is the main culprit for the death and reduced populations of overwintered honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in Ontario, Canada

@article{GuzmanNovoa2011VarroaDI,
  title={Varroa destructor is the main culprit for the death and reduced populations of overwintered honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in Ontario, Canada},
  author={Ernesto Guzman‐Novoa and Les Eccles and Yireli Calvete and Janine Mcgowan and Paul Gordon Kelly and Adriana Correa-Ben{\'i}tez},
  journal={Apidologie},
  year={2011},
  volume={41},
  pages={443-450}
}
The relative effect of parasite levels, bee population size, and food reserves on winter mortality and post winter populations of honey bee colonies was estimated. More than 400 colonies were monitored throughout three seasons in Ontario, Canada. Most of the colonies were infested with varroa mites during the fall (75.7%), but only 27.9% and 6.1% tested positive to nosema disease and tracheal mites, respectively. Winter colony mortality was 27.2%, and when examined as a fraction of all… 

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