A 78-year-old woman presented with a right basal ganglia infarct 6 weeks after a left herpes zoster ophthalmicus. MR angiography showed focal segmental stenosis of the proximal segments of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries. Varicella DNA was detected in the CSF by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Treated with dexamethasone and acyclovir without improvement, she died 1 month later. There was focal endarteritis in the left anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries at autopsy. Varicella DNA was detected by PCR of extracts from these vessels but not from the arteries on the right side. This study provides further evidence that the vasculopathy after herpes zoster ophthalmicus results from direct viral invasion of the vessel wall.