A wide range of phenotypic variation was observed among neopolyploids obtained from the diploid pear cultivar ‘Fertility’ by in vitro colchicine treatment. The variant plantlets had alterations in leaf characteristics. Neopolyploids had significantly different ratios of leaf length to leaf width compared to the diploid control. Shoot regeneration from leaf explants and rooting ability from in vitro shoots of neopolyploids was examined. Regeneration frequencies of shoots from leaf explants of seven of the nine neopolyploids were significantly decreased compared to the diploid control. The organogenic potential of neopolyploids was highly genotype-dependent for both shoots and roots. Tetraploid clone 4x − 4 failed to regenerate shoots from leaf explants and the pentaploid clone 5x − 2 failed to root from in vitro shoots. The results suggest that polyploidization caused the decrease in or loss of in vitro organogenic potential. Regenerated shoots derived from neopolyploids showed different phenotypes, depending on the ploidy of the donor plant.