Variation in Physiology and Energy Management of Wintering White-winged Scoters in Relation to Local Habitat Conditions

Abstract

Along the Pacific coast of North America, White-winged Scoters (Melanitta fusca) winter in sites that vary widely in habitat conditions. This habitat variation likely alters the relative costs and benefits of using specific sites in terms of factors such as foraging conditions, degree of predation danger, and thermoregulatory costs. To assess how White… (More)

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