Habitat and climatic preferences drive invasions of non-native ambrosia beetles in deciduous temperate forests
In 2013, we examined the effects of conophthorin on flight responses of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to multiple-funnel traps baited with ethanol in Georgia, Michigan, New Hampshire, and Oregon. Adventive species (=exotic, nonnative, immigrant, introduced) accounted for 91.4% of total catches of ambrosia beetles. Conophthorin increased catches of Xyleborinus saxesenii (Ratzeburg) in Georgia, New Hampshire, and Oregon. Catches of Cyclorhipidion pelliculosum (Eichhoff) were increased by conophthorin in New Hampshire but not in Michigan. In Oregon, conophthorin decreased catches of Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) to ethanol-baited traps but not in Michigan and New Hampshire. In Georgia, conophthorin increased catches of Gnathotrichus materiarius (Fitch), Xyleborus spp., and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) but decreased catches of Cnestus mutilatus (Blandford), Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), and Cyclorhipidion bodoanum (Reitter). Conophthorin had no effect on catches of Ambrosiophilus atratus (Eichhoff), Anisandrus dispar (F.), Anisandrus sayi (Hopkins), Gnathotrichus sulcatus (Leconte), Monarthrum fasciatum (Say), Monarthrum mali (Fitch), and Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff). Attraction of the bark beetle, Hypothenemus rotundicollis (Eichhoff), was interrupted by conophthorin in Georgia. Our results suggest that adding conophthorin lures to traps baited with ethanol may have utility in detection programs in North America and overseas. However, traps baited with ethanol alone should also be used due to interruption in attraction for some species of ambrosia beetles.