Variable major lipoprotein is a principal TNF-inducing factor of louse-borne relapsing fever

@article{Vidal1998VariableML,
  title={Variable major lipoprotein is a principal TNF-inducing factor of louse-borne relapsing fever},
  author={Vincent Vidal and Ian G. Scragg and Sally Jane Cutler and Kirk A. Rockett and Daniel Fekade and David A. Warrell and David J. M. Wright and Dominic P. Kwiatkowski},
  journal={Nature Medicine},
  year={1998},
  volume={4},
  pages={1416-1420}
}
Massive release of tumor necrosis factor is responsible for the potentially fatal Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction that follows antibiotic treatment of relapsing fever due to Borrelia recurrentis. We have undertaken the quantitative purification of the components of B. recurrentis that stimulate human monocytes to produce tumor necrosis factor. We show that the predominant factor inducing tumor necrosis factor is a variable lipoprotein homologous to the variable major protein of B. hermsii. We found… 
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This chapter provides examples of antigenic variation that meet three criteria. (i) There is evidence that variation is mainly for avoidance of the host’s immune response or niche selection, i.e.,
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RBI in RF is relatively frequent and can occur by persistence of the original or newly emerged serotypes, both of which are known to occur in relapsing fever.
Role of interleukin 10 during persistent infection with the relapsing fever Spirochete Borrelia turicatae.
TLDR
IL-10 plays a protective role as a down-regulator of inflammation and pathogen load during infection with relapsing fever spirochetes, andMeasurement of cytokines revealed a significant positive correlation between pathogenic load and interleukin (IL)-10 in blood, brain, and heart.
Crystal Structure of Neurotropism-Associated Variable Surface Protein 1 (Vsp1) of Borrelia turicatae
TLDR
Crystal structures of the Vsp1 dimer confirm that relapsing fever Vsp proteins share a common helical fold with OspCs of Lyme disease-causing Borrelia and suggest observed differences in disease manifestation may arise in part from distinct differences in electrostatic surface properties.
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