Variable investment, the Continuous Prisoner's Dilemma, and the origin of cooperation.

  title={Variable investment, the Continuous Prisoner's Dilemma, and the origin of cooperation.},
  author={Timothy Killingback and Michael Doebeli and Nancy Knowlton},
  journal={Proceedings. Biological sciences},
  volume={266 1430},
Cooperation is fundamental to many biological systems. A common metaphor for studying the evolution of cooperation is the Prisoner's Dilemma, a game with two strategies: cooperate or defect. However, cooperation is rare all or nothing, and its evolution probably involves the gradual extension of initially modest degrees of assistance. The inability of the Prisoner's Dilemma to capture this basic aspect limits its use for understanding the evolutionary origins of cooperation. Here we consider a… CONTINUE READING
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