Nowadays, physicochemical approach to understanding toxic effects remains underdeveloped. A proper development of such mode would be concerned with simplest bioassay systems. Coelenteramide-Containing Fluorescent Proteins (CLM-CFPs) can serve as proper tools for study primary physicochemical processes in organisms under external exposures. CLM-CFPs are products of bioluminescent reactions of marine coelenterates. As opposed to Green Fluorescent Proteins, the CLM-CFPs are not widely applied in biomedical research, and their potential as colored biomarkers is undervalued now. Coelenteramide, fluorophore of CLM-CFPs, is a photochemically active molecule; it acts as a proton donor in its electron-excited states, generating several forms of different fluorescent state energy and, hence, different fluorescence color, from violet to green. Contributions of the forms to the visible fluorescence depend on the coelenteramide microenvironment in proteins. Hence, CLM-CFPs can serve as fluorescence biomarkers with color differentiation to monitor results of destructive biomolecule exposures. The paper reviews experimental and theoretical studies of spectral-luminescent and photochemical properties of CLM-CFPs, as well as their variation under different exposures - chemicals, temperature, and ionizing radiation. Application of CLM-CFPs as toxicity bioassays of a new type is justified.