Variability of Criteria Used to Diagnose Myofascial Trigger Point Pain Syndrome—Evidence From a Review of the Literature

  title={Variability of Criteria Used to Diagnose Myofascial Trigger Point Pain Syndrome—Evidence From a Review of the Literature},
  author={Elizabeth A Tough and Adrian White and Suzanne H. Richards and John L Campbell},
  journal={The Clinical Journal of Pain},
ObjectivesThe aim of the literature review was to investigate the criteria adopted by “experts” to diagnose myofascial trigger point (MTrP) pain syndrome. Experts were defined as being either researchers investigating MTrP pain syndrome or the “authority” the researchers cited as a source of reference for MTrP pain syndrome diagnosis. MethodsWe searched electronic databases to identify relevant empirical research (excluding studies not in English and those relating to dental pathology). Of 607… 
Fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndrome: Two sides of the same coin? A scoping review to determine the lexicon of the current diagnostic criteria
Consistent terminology to describe the diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia (FM) and myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is required to address the reported inadequacies in diagnosis, and there is wide variability in the terminology currently being used.
International Consensus on Diagnostic Criteria and Clinical Considerations of Myofascial Trigger Points: A Delphi Study
A Delphi panel has produced an expert-based standardized definition of a TrP with a discussion of the clinical components, including the definition of referred pain and the difference between active and latent TrPs, thereby providing a foundation for future research in MPS.
Signs and Symptoms of Myofascial Pain: An International Survey of Pain Management Providers and Proposed Preliminary Set of Diagnostic Criteria.
A survey collected clinician perspectives on MPS to foster the development of a formal case definition for empirical validation and propose a set of preliminary diagnostic criteria for clinical or research use of MPS.
Prevalence, Incidence, Localization, and Pathophysiology of Myofascial Trigger Points in Patients With Spinal Pain: A Systematic Literature Review.
A narrative review of new trends in the diagnosis of myofascial trigger points: diagnostic ultrasound imaging and biomarkers.
Two promising areas of research with potential for enhancing the diagnosis of MPS include the use of diagnostic ultrasound and biomarkers and the development of composite diagnostic criteria employing ultrasound imaging, biomarker assessments and physical assessment.
Validity and Reliability of Clinical Examination in the Diagnosis of Myofascial Pain Syndrome and Myofascial Trigger Points in Upper Quarter Muscles
Interrater reliability between two expert examiners identifying subjects with MPS involving upper quarter muscles exhibited substantial agreement, which suggests that clinical criteria can be valid and reliable in the diagnosis of this condition.
Reliability of Physical Examination for Diagnosis of Myofascial Trigger Points: A Systematic Review of the Literature
Physical examination cannot currently be recommended as a reliable test for the diagnosis of trigger points on the basis of the limited number of studies available, and significant problems with their design, reporting, statistical integrity, and clinical applicability.
A Critical Appraisal of the Evidence for Botulinum Toxin Type A in the Treatment for Cervico‐Thoracic Myofascial Pain Syndrome
Higher quality, rigorously standardized studies are needed to more appropriately investigate this promising treatment modality for cervico‐thoracic MPS.
A comparison of the clinical manifestation and pathophysiology of myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyalgia: implications for differential diagnosis and management.
This review will address inconsistency among health care practitioners' diagnoses, and present alternative diagnostic tools with potential for inclusion into a mechanism-based diagnostic protocol for myofascial pain syndrome.


Signs and symptoms of the myofascial pain syndrome: a national survey of pain management providers.
There was general agreement across specialties that MPS is a legitimate diagnosis distinct from fibromyalgia and a high level of agreement regarding the signs and symptoms essential or associated with a diagnosis of MPS.
Reliability of Clinical Assessment Measures for the Classification of Myofascial Pain Syndrome
The express purpose of the proposed study will be to establish reliable classification criteria for MPS in the upper torso which can then be applied for research and clinical purposes with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity.
Test-retest reliability of myofascial trigger point detection in patients with rotator cuff tendonitis
The presence or absence of the taut band, spot tenderness, jump sign and pain recognition was highly reliable between sessions and Referred pain and local twitch response reliability varied depending on the muscle being studied.
The fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndromes: a preliminary study of tender points and trigger points in persons with fibromyalgia, myofascial pain syndrome and no disease.
The data suggest that attention to definition and reliability are required to advance the knowledge of these common syndromes and that problems with reliability were identified for taut bands, muscle twitch, and active trigger points.
Prevalence of myofascial pain in general internal medicine practice.
The prevalence and severity of myofascial pain in this university internal medicine setting suggest that regional myofAscial pain may be an important cause of pain complaints in the practice of general internal medicine.
Regional soft tissue pains: alias myofascial pain?
  • E. Tunks, J. Crook
  • Medicine
    Bailliere's best practice & research. Clinical rheumatology
  • 1999
The clinical usefulness of the myofascial pain diagnosis is considered with regard to what is believed about the course of healing, the determinants of disability, the Course of regional versus widespread musculoskeletal pain, the relationship of musculo-skeletal injury to pain, and the evidence-based management ofMusculoskletal pain.
The occurrence and inter-rater reliability of myofascial trigger points in the quadratus lumborum and gluteus medius: a prospective study in non-specific low back pain patients and controls in general practice.
The clinical usefulness of trigger points is increased when localized tenderness and the presence of either jump sign or patient's recognition of his pain complaint are used as criteria for the presenceOf trigger points in the M. quadratus lumborum and gluteus medius muscle.
Use of Botulinum Toxin in the Treatment of Chronic Myofascial Pain
The results of this study are consistent with other studies showing the efficacy of BTX‐A for treating pain in MPS and the evaluation of the psychologic dimension of this disorder can provide valuable information for the adequate management of these patients and for assessing treatment outcome.