Variability in in vitro macrophage activation by commercially diverse bulk echinacea plant material is predominantly due to bacterial lipoproteins and lipopolysaccharides.

@article{Tamta2008VariabilityII,
  title={Variability in in vitro macrophage activation by commercially diverse bulk echinacea plant material is predominantly due to bacterial lipoproteins and lipopolysaccharides.},
  author={Hemlata Tamta and Nirmal D. Pugh and Premalatha Balachandran and Rita Maria Moraes and Joko Sumiyanto and David S. Pasco},
  journal={Journal of agricultural and food chemistry},
  year={2008},
  volume={56 22},
  pages={10552-6}
}
We previously reported that the majority of in vitro monocyte/macrophage activation exhibited by extracts of Echinacea and other botanicals depends upon bacterial lipopolysaccharides and Braun-type bacterial lipoproteins. We determined the contribution made by these bacterial components to the overall immune-enhancing activity detected in E. purpurea and E. angustifolia bulk root and aerial material obtained from six major growers/suppliers in North America. Substantial variation in activity… CONTINUE READING

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