Variability: noise or information in ecotoxicology?

  title={Variability: noise or information in ecotoxicology?},
  author={Peter Calow},
  journal={Environmental toxicology and pharmacology},
  volume={2 2-3},
There can be considerable variability between species, and within species between genotypes, in responses to toxicants. This needs to be controlled in running ecotoxicity tests and taken into account in carrying out ecological risk assessments. This paper addresses these two aspects of the problem and describes the methodology involved in each. 


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