Vaporization as a Smokeless Cannabis Delivery System: A Pilot Study

@article{Abrams2007VaporizationAA,
  title={Vaporization as a Smokeless Cannabis Delivery System: A Pilot Study},
  author={Donald I. Abrams and Hector P. Vizoso and SB Shade and Cheryl A. Jay and Mary Ellen Kelly and Neal L. Benowitz},
  journal={Clinical Pharmacology \& Therapeutics},
  year={2007},
  volume={82}
}
Although cannabis may have potential therapeutic value, inhalation of a combustion product is an undesirable delivery system. The aim of the study was to investigate vaporization using the Volcano® device as an alternative means of delivery of inhaled Cannabis sativa. Eighteen healthy inpatient subjects enrolled to compare the delivery of cannabinoids by vaporization to marijuana smoked in a standard cigarette. One strength (1.7, 3.4, or 6.8% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) and delivery system was… 
Case studies in cannabis vaporization
TLDR
The results suggest that the cannabis vaporizer is acceptable to users, and has the potential to decrease cannabis-related respiratory problems, and the device may increase awareness about respiratory health in cannabis users who also smoke cigarettes.
Acute neuroradiological, behavioral, and physiological effects of nose-only exposure to vaporized cannabis in C57BL/6 mice
TLDR
Quantified physiological, behavioral, and neurological responses served as validation for the mouse model of cannabis inhalation, and animal models of aerosol exposure will be instrumental for uncovering the health outcomes of chronic cannabis use.
Acute Pharmacokinetic Profile of Smoked and Vaporized Cannabis in Human Blood and Oral Fluid.
TLDR
Vaporization appears to be a more efficient method of delivery compared with smoking, and blood and/or oral fluid cannabinoid concentrations were weakly to moderately correlated with pharmacodynamic outcomes.
Cannabis smoke condensate III: The cannabinoid content of vaporised Cannabis sativa
TLDR
The cannabinoids:by-products ratio in the vapor obtained at 200°C and 230°C was significantly higher than in the cigarette smoke, and the worst ratio of cannabinoids: by-products was obtained from the vaporized cannabis sample at 170°C.
Controlled Cannabis Vaporizer Administration: Blood and Plasma Cannabinoids with and without Alcohol.
TLDR
The significantly higher blood THC and 11-OH-THC Cmax values with alcohol possibly explain increased performance impairment observed from cannabis-alcohol combinations.
The influence of cannabis smoke and cannabis vapour on simulated lung surfactant function under physiologically relevant conditions
TLDR
The trends noted were ascribed to two factors operating synergistically, namely the amount of Δ9‐THC (plus others) within the aerosolised samples and the associated toxicity profile, and further research is required to establish mass‐balance effects (ie, titrated outputs).
Smokeless consumption of medical cannabis pharmacokinetics, safety and feasibility of the CannaHALER© a phase 1a study
TLDR
The CannaHaler achieved high C max values and low coefficient of variations in comparison to both smoking and oral preparations, thus reaching the potential of a pharmaceutical grade device for inhaled substance.
Medicinal Cannabis: In Vitro Validation of Vaporizers for the Smoke-Free Inhalation of Cannabis
TLDR
Temperature-controlled, electrically-driven vaporizers efficiently decarboxylate inactive acidic cannabinoids and reliably release their corresponding neutral, active cannabinoids, and offer a promising application mode for the safe and efficient administration of medicinal cannabis.
Cannabinoid disposition in oral fluid after controlled vaporizer administration with and without alcohol
TLDR
Oral fluid (OF) is an advantageous matrix for cannabis detection, with on-site tests available for roadside drug-impaired driver screening and Dräger had lower sensitivity after 6.7 % THC vaporization than reported following smoking a 6.8 %, but high specificity (99.3 %) and comparable efficiency (65.0 %).
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 24 REFERENCES
Evaluation of a vaporizing device (Volcano) for the pulmonary administration of tetrahydrocannabinol.
TLDR
Evaluating the performance of the Volcano vaporizer in terms of reproducible delivery of the bioactive cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) by using pure cannabinoid preparations, shows that with the Volcano a safe and effective cannabinoid delivery system seems to be available to patients.
Short-Term Effects of Cannabinoids in Patients with HIV-1 Infection
TLDR
The findings of no large harmful effects on viral loads with either smoked or oral cannabinoids need to be confirmed in larger and longer trials, and the likelihood of a drugdrug interaction between protease inhibitors and marijuana is worrisome since many HIV-infected patients continue to smoke marijuana as an appetite stimulant or to decrease nausea associated with their antiretroviral therapy.
Marijuana and medicine: assessing the science base: a summary of the 1999 Institute of Medicine report.
TLDR
A study by the Institute of Medicine evaluating the scientific evidence for benefits and risks of using marijuana as a medicine called for heavier investment in research on the biology of cannabinoid systems and called for compassionate use of marijuana to be considered under carefully reviewed protocols.
Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base
TLDR
Marijuana and Medicine addresses the science base and the therapeutic effects of marijuana use for medical conditions such as glaucoma and multiple sclerosis and evaluates how well marijuana meets accepted standards for medicine and considers the conclusions of other blue-ribbon panels.
Compensatory Smoking of Low-Yield Cigarettes
TLDR
If regulation of nicotine intake is precise, that is, compensation is complete, then switching to low-yield cigarettes would not be expected to reduce exposure to tobacco toxins, nor to reduce the risk of disease from smoking.
Bioavailability and Bioequivalence Studies for Orally Administered Drug Products
TLDR
This draft document is intended to provide a guide to the administration's planned use of nanofiltration technology for the recovery of phosphorous-like particles from the blood stream after they have been removed from the body.
An Interview with Markus Storz: June 19, 2002
Storz: 5 years ago I was looking for a good Vaporizer and couldn’t find one to satisfy me, so I started to develop and design one myself. The Volcano is manufactured in Tuttlingen, a town in Southern
...
...