BACKGROUND Due to high rates of resistance and a limited number of efficacious antimicrobials for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), appropriate antibiotic selection is vital to treatment success. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical and microbiologic outcomes associated with the use of linezolid or daptomycin in the treatment of VRE bacteremia. METHODS A retrospective analysis of adult patients with VRE bacteremia between January 2004 and July 2009 was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in the United States. Clinical and microbiologic outcomes for both therapies were evaluated using multiple criteria. RESULTS Of the 361 patients with VRE bacteremia identified, 201 were included in the study (linezolid group, n = 138; daptomycin group, n = 63). More patients in the daptomycin group had hematologic malignancies (33% vs 14%) or received liver transplants (13% vs 4%). There was no difference in clinical or microbiologic cure between the linezolid and daptomycin groups (74% vs 75% and 94% vs 94%, respectively). Recurrence was documented in 3% of linezolid patients vs 12% of daptomycin patients (P = 0.0321). Reinfection was noted in 1% of patients in the linezolid group vs 6% of patients in the daptomycin group (P not significant). The average length of stay (LOS) was 37 days for the linezolid group vs 40 days for the daptomycin group (P not significant). Overall mortality was 20%, occurring in 25/138 linezolid patients vs 15/63 daptomycin patients (P not significant). CONCLUSIONS No differences in clinical or microbiologic cure rates, LOS, or mortality were identified between the groups. Various factors may have contributed to the significantly higher recurrence of VRE bacteremia in daptomycin patients. This study suggests that linezolid and daptomycin appear equally efficacious in the treatment of VRE bacteremia.