Vancomycin‐resistant enterococci and use of avoparcin in animal feed: is there a link?

@article{Collignon1999VancomycinresistantEA,
  title={Vancomycin‐resistant enterococci and use of avoparcin in animal feed: is there a link?},
  author={Peter J Collignon},
  journal={Medical Journal of Australia},
  year={1999},
  volume={171}
}
  • P. Collignon
  • Published 1 August 1999
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Medical Journal of Australia
Australia is unique among Western countries in allowing animal use of this vancomycin-like antibiotic. 
Vancomycin‐resistant enterococci: causes and control
  • J. Ferguson
  • Medicine, Biology
    The Medical journal of Australia
  • 1999
The overriding emphasis should be on control of antibiotic use in humans and animals
Why is Transmission of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci on the Increase?
TLDR
The literature examines basic microbiology, reservoirs, acquisition, transmission, colonization, the major concerns of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and the reasons why increases in antibiotic resistance are currently being experienced.
A resistant culture - ?superbugs? in Australian hospitals
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Antimicrobial resistance is not new in Australian hospitals, but another virulent penicillin resistant S. aureus strain emerged in neonatal units in Sydney and spread to other hospitals in Australia and overseas, causing serious soft tissue infections, osteomyelitis, pneumonia and septicaemia.
Illustrative examples of probable transfer of resistance determinants from food animals to humans: Streptothricins, glycopeptides, and colistin
TLDR
Three illustrations of antimicrobial use in food animal production that has contributed to the selection—and subsequent transfer—of resistance determinants from food animals to humans are included.
Antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli strains isolated from healthy and septicemic chickens.
TLDR
There is a clear association between heavy antimicrobial consumption in poultry industry and the recovery of resistant bacteria, and controlled use of these antimicrobial agents in veterinary practice is recommended.
Antibiotics in food production animals: cause of human health problems?
TLDR
Hoivever, many of the driving factors for this antibiotic resistance could be substantially reduced or eliminated without compromising the therapy of sick animals.
Characterization of Tn1546 in Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Canine Urinary Tract Infections: Evidence of Gene Exchange between Human and Animal Enterococci
TLDR
Molecular analysis of a canine E. faecium isolate recovered from dogs diagnosed with urinary tract infections at the Michigan State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital revealed the presence of Tn1546 (vanA), responsible for high- level vancomycin resistance, and Tn5281 carrying aac6′-aph2, conferring high-level aminoglycoside resistance.
Frequency of antibiotic resistance in bacteria inhabiting water of downtown pond
TLDR
It follows from the results that bacteria were most resistant to penicillin and sensitive to gentamycin, neomycin and oxytetracycli ne, and Pigmented bacteria were more antibiotic resistant than non-pigmented ones.
Antimicrobial drug resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry abattoir workers at risk and broilers on antimicrobials.
TLDR
The majority of isolates from broilers were resistant, especially to antimicrobials that were used on the farms in the study, including doxycycline, trimethoprim, sulphamethoxazole, ampicillin, enrofloxacin and nalidixic acid.
11: Antibiotic resistance
TLDR
The need for antibiotic therapy can be reduced by preventing infections through vaccination, infection control measures and improved sanitation, and more research is needed into new antibiotics and regimens and into improving medical devices and protocols to prevent infection.
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Besides hospitals animal husbandry represents a large reservoir of transferable antibiotic resistance genes which can easily reach humans via food products resistant bacteria.
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Results confirm earlier observations on the spread of the sat genes, which confer resistance to a streptothricin antibiotic which has only been used in animal feeding, and create a potential reservoir of transferable, vanA-mediated glycopeptide resistance in enterococci.
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It is indicated that oral vancomycin administration to humans is a primary cause of VRE in Austrian hospitals and the use of this animal foodstuff supplement is prohibited by the European Commission.
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