Vampire bat, shrew, and bear: comparative physiology and chronic renal failure.

  title={Vampire bat, shrew, and bear: comparative physiology and chronic renal failure.},
  author={Michael A. Singer},
  journal={American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology},
  volume={282 6},
In the typical mammal, energy flux, protein metabolism, and renal excretory processes constitute a set of closely linked and quantitatively matched functions. However, this matching has limits, and these limits become apparent when animals adapt to unusual circumstances. The vampire bat and shrew have an extremely high protein intake, and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is not commensurate with the large urea load to be excreted. The vampire bat is chronically azotemic (blood urea… CONTINUE READING
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