Valvular heart disease: classic teaching and emerging paradigms.

  title={Valvular heart disease: classic teaching and emerging paradigms.},
  author={Douglas Marshall Brinkley and Eli V. Gelfand},
  journal={The American journal of medicine},
  volume={126 12},
Valvular heart disease is both prevalent and increases with age. The final pathway of valvular disease is heart failure and sometimes sudden death, so clinicians must identify and treat it before these endpoints occur. Noninvasive diagnostic modalities such as echocardiography, exercise tolerance testing, and cardiac magnetic resonance provide additional… CONTINUE READING