Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits

@article{Michalek2011ValuationOP,
  title={Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits},
  author={Jeremy J. Michalek and Mikhail V. Chester and Paulina Jaramillo and Constantine Samaras and Ching-Shin Norman Shiau and Lester B. Lave},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences},
  year={2011},
  volume={108},
  pages={16554 - 16558}
}
We assess the economic value of life-cycle air emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles in the US. We find that plug-in vehicles may reduce or increase externality costs relative to grid-independent HEVs, depending largely on greenhouse gas and SO2 emissions produced during vehicle charging and battery manufacturing. However, even if future marginal damages from emissions of… 

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