Valproate as a treatment for dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) in Parkinson’s disease

@article{Sriram2012ValproateAA,
  title={Valproate as a treatment for dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) in Parkinson’s disease},
  author={Ashok Sriram and Herbert E. Ward and Anhar Hassan and Sanjay S. Iyer and Kelly D. Foote and Ramon L. Rodriguez and Nikolaus R. McFarland and Michael S. Okun},
  journal={Journal of Neurology},
  year={2012},
  volume={260},
  pages={521-527}
}
It has been previously well established that the use of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson’s disease may contribute to behavioral disturbances such as dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), impulse control disorders (ICD), and punding. ICD and punding have been most commonly addressed by reducing dose or by discontinuing the use of a dopamine agonist. Treatment of DDS has proven more challenging, and to date there has been no standard approach. In this paper, we review a series of four patients… 
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TLDR
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The phenomenology, prevalence, and risk factors of patients with PD, as well as new insights from functional imaging studies, strengthening the incentive salience hypothesis, are discussed, and therapeutic guidelines for the management of ICBs in PD are given.
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An overview of GD pathogenesis during DA therapy as well as a summary of available treatment options is provided.
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