Combined effects of interaction between physical activity and nutrition on bone health in children and adolescents: a systematic review
- C Julián-Almárcegui, I Huybrechts, A Gómez-Cabello, A Gónzalez-Agüero, JM Kaufman, LA Moreno
- Nutr Rev
INTRODUCTION accurate estimates of the intake of specific nutrients such as calcium (Ca) are crucial to correctly rank or classify subjects in the distribution of intakes. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for measuring Ca intake in two different groups of healthy adolescents, a normoactive control group and a physically active group of swimmers with 2 non-consecutive 24h recalls (2 x 24HR) collected as the reference method. METHODS Pearson correlations, agreement between the 24HR and the FFQ at an individual level and questionnaire's ability to assign individuals to the same quartile of intake as the 24HR were calculated. RESULTS mean daily Ca intakes were 564.6 mg (SD 232.0) and 895.9 mg (SD 343.1) for the 2 x 24HR and FFQ respectively in controls (P < 0.001); and 731.9 mg (SD 299.8) and 979.8 mg (SD 408.5) for the 2 x 24HR and FFQ respectively in swimmers (P < 0.001). Pearson correlations were 0.52 for controls and 0.47 for swimmers after correcting for intra-variability. Cross-classification analysis indicated that 73.7% of controls and 63.1% of swimmers were classified correctly or in the adjacent category. Also, the 89% of the control group and 79% of swimmers were classified correctly with the FFQ according to the dietary reference intake (DRI) of 1300 mg/d. CONCLUSIONS for both groups, the FFQ tended to overestimate Ca intake, however it demonstrated fairly good ability to classify subjects into extremes of Ca intake and identified adolescents having Ca intakes lower than the dietary reference intake.