Validity and Reliability of the Positive Aspects of Caregiving (PAC) Scale and Development of Its Shorter Version (S-PAC) Among Family Caregivers of Older Adults.

Abstract

Purpose of the Study To (a) assess the validity and reliability of the 9-item Positive Aspects of Caregiving (PAC) scale among a national sample of caregivers for older adults with functional limitations, (b) develop a shorter version (short-PAC [S-PAC] scale) and assess its psychometric properties, and (c) investigate both scales' measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) across language of administration (Chinese/English/Malay). Design and Methods Scale/item measurement property assessment, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), testing the "original" 2-factor model (6 items: first factor; 3 items: second factor), and exploratory FA (EFA) of the 9-item PAC scale was done. Consequently, alternate CFA models were tested. The S-PAC was developed and subjected to CFA. For both scales, convergent (correlation with caregiver esteem) and divergent (correlation with caregiver depressive symptoms) validity, and language ME/I was assessed. Results For the 9-item PAC scale, the "original" 2-factor CFA model had a poor fit; its EFA and scale/item measurement properties supported a single factor. Among alternate CFA models, a bi-factor model (all nine items: first factor [overall PAC]; six items: second factor [self-affirmation]; three items: third factor [outlook-on-life]) had the best fit. The bi-factor CFA model also had a good fit for the S-PAC scale, developed after eliminating 2 items from the 9-item PAC scale. Both scales demonstrated convergent and divergent validity, and partial ME/I across language of administration. Implications Both the 9-item PAC and 7-item S-PAC scales can be used to assess positive feelings resulting from care provision among family caregivers of older adults with functional limitations.

DOI: 10.1093/geront/gnw198

Cite this paper

@article{Siow2017ValidityAR, title={Validity and Reliability of the Positive Aspects of Caregiving (PAC) Scale and Development of Its Shorter Version (S-PAC) Among Family Caregivers of Older Adults.}, author={Jeffrey Yong Ming Siow and Angelique Wei-Ming Chan and Truls \Ostbye and Grand H. L. Cheng and Rahul Malhotra}, journal={The Gerontologist}, year={2017}, volume={57 4}, pages={e75-e84} }