Validation by Holiness or Sovereignty: Religious Toleration as Political Theology in the Mongol World Empire of the Thirteenth Century

  title={Validation by Holiness or Sovereignty: Religious Toleration as Political Theology in the Mongol World Empire of the Thirteenth Century},
  author={C. Atwood},
  journal={The International History Review},
  pages={237 - 256}
  • C. Atwood
  • Published 2004
  • History
  • The International History Review
conquerors have been famous for religious toleration since the time of Edward Gibbon. The willingness to patronize many religions and to acknowledge their followers as praying to the same heaven comes as a refreshing change for students of the Middle Ages. Gibbon pioneered the use of the Mongol case to criticize medieval obscurantism when he interpolated into his account of the decline and fall of the Roman Empire a digression on the religious policy of Chinggis Khan. In the midst of a story… Expand
Encounters in the Ruins: Latin Captives, Franciscan Friars and the Dangers of Religious Plurality in the Early Mongol Empire *
Among the richest, and strangest, sites for religious encounter during the medieval period was the network of Mongol encampments on the Eurasian steppe. In the middle decades of the thirteenthExpand
Theologies of Auspicious Kingship: The Islamization of Chinggisid Sacral Kingship in the Islamic World
  • J. Brack
  • History
  • Comparative Studies in Society and History
  • 2018
Abstract This article explores the fashioning of a new discursive realm of Islamic kingship in thirteenth–fourteenth-century Mongol-ruled Iran (the Ilkhanate). It examines how literati, historians,Expand
The World Imagined: Collective Beliefs and Political Order in the Sinocentric, Islamic and Southeast Asian International Societies
Taking an inter-disciplinary approach, Spruyt explains the political organization of three non-European international societies from early modernity to the late nineteenth century. The Ottoman,Expand
Our great Qing
JOHAN ELVERSKOG Although it is generally believed that the Manchus controlled the Mongols through their patronage of Tibetan Buddhism, scant attention has been paid to the Mongol view of the QingExpand
Negotiating between Mongol Institutions and "Han Traditions": Buddhist Administration in Southeastern China under the Yuan
After the Mongol conquest, Yuan political institutions evolved unique features as a result of the combination of Mongolian institutions with the preexisting Chinese autocratic bureaucratic system.Expand
The Institutional Foundations of Religious Freedom
How did religious freedom emerge? I address this question by building on the framework of Johnson and Koyama’s Persecution & Toleration: The Long Road to Religious Freedom (2019). First, I establishExpand
  • Jinping Wang
  • History
  • International Journal of Asian Studies
  • 2016
During the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, people in north China took advantage of a Mongol policy that gave Buddhist officials a status equivalent to what civil officials enjoyed, as a strategyExpand
History Writing and the Making of Mongolian Buddhism
When in the late sixteenth century the third Dalai Lama travelled to the Mongolian regions, he was accompanied by Buddhist monks of different Tibetan schools, Gelugpa, Sakyapa, Kagyüpa and others.Expand
Introduction: The Islamisation of the Steppe
The Mongol conquests, launched by Chinggis Khan at the end of the 12th century and completed by his great-son Qubilai at the end of the 13th century, disrupted the inter-regional balance from ChinaExpand
Inner Asian States and Empires: Theories and Synthesis
By 200 B.C. a series of expansive polities emerged in Inner Asia that would dominate the history of this region and, at times, a very large portion of Eurasia for the next 2,000 years. TheExpand


236 . 4 The King s Dictionary
  • The Rasulid Hexaglot : Fourteenth Century Vocabularies in Arabic , Persian , Turkic , Greek , Armenian and Mongol