Vagus nerve stimulation in refractory epilepsy: effects on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood.

OBJECTIVE The vagus nerve has important immunological functions that may be relevant for its anticonvulsive action. We postulate that this anticonvulsive action is activated by a shift in the immune system resulting in a reduction of neurotoxic and an increase of neuroprotective tryptophan metabolites. METHODS Eleven patients with refractory epilepsy and… CONTINUE READING