Vagus nerve stimulation in brain diseases: Therapeutic applications and biological mechanisms

@article{Wang2021VagusNS,
  title={Vagus nerve stimulation in brain diseases: Therapeutic applications and biological mechanisms},
  author={Yue Wang and Gaofeng Zhan and Ziwen Cai and Bo Jiao and Yilin Zhao and Shiyong Li and Ailin Luo},
  journal={Neuroscience \& Biobehavioral Reviews},
  year={2021},
  volume={127},
  pages={37-53}
}

Non-invasive Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Cerebral Stroke: Current Status and Future Perspectives

The data suggest that nVNS can be applied easily not only as a possible secondary prophylactic treatment in chronic cerebral stroke, but also as a promising adjunctive treatment in acute cerebral stroke in the near future.

Transcranial Focused Ultrasound Neuromodulation: A Review of the Excitatory and Inhibitory Effects on Brain Activity in Human and Animals

This review synthesizes animal and human research outcomes and offers an integrated description of the excitatory and inhibitory effects of tFUS in varying experimental and disease conditions.

Effects and neuroprotective mechanisms of vagus nerve stimulation on cognitive impairment with traumatic brain injury in animal studies: A systematic review and meta-analysis

The present review showed that VNS can effectively promote cognitive impairment and neuropathology in animal models of TBI and there is a need for high-quality TBI animal studies with sufficient sample size and a more comprehensive outcome evaluation.

Self-Administration of Right Vagus Nerve Stimulation Activates Midbrain Dopaminergic Nuclei

The results support the existence of strong lateralization within vagal-mesencephalic signaling pathways, and suggest that VNS targeted to the right, rather than left, cervical nerve preferentially activates the midbrain dopaminergic system.

Electrical stimulation methods for the preclinical treatment of TBI sequelae - An overview

An overview of the most prominent electrical stimulation modalities, namely transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranIAL direct current stimulation (tDCS), deep brain stimulation (DBS) and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is given to show the diverse range of possible applications of electrical stimulation for the treatment of TBI sequelae.

Acupuncture for brain diseases: Conception, application, and exploration.

It is found that in the past decades, acupuncture has received widespread attention worldwide and many literatures have reported the clinical efficacy and underlying mechanisms of acupuncture in the treatment of brain diseases.

Vagus nerve stimulation is a potential treatment for ischemic stroke

Vagus nerve stimulation inhibited Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor kappa-B expression through activating α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and regulated microglial polarization after ischemic stroke, thereby playing a role in the treatment of ischeic stroke.

Effects of Stable Vagus Nerve Stimulation Efficacy on Autistic Behaviors in Ten Pediatric Patients With Drug Resistant Epilepsy: An Observational Study

It is suggested that the VNS had a positive effect on autistic behaviors, which provided a preliminary clinical basis that VNS may benefit to younger children with DRE comorbidity autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Cognitive function and brain activation before and after transcutaneous cervical vagus nerve stimulation in healthy adults: A concurrent tcVNS-fMRI study

tcVNS had beneficial effects on cognitive performance, mainly improving memory and language skills and attention, and future tcVNS/fMRI trials will need to explore the effects of changes in stimulus parameters on the neural activity response of the brain.

Short-pulsed micro-magnetic stimulation of the vagus nerve

A method of VNS using micro-magnetic stimulation (µMS) is described, which may be an alternative technique to induce a focal stimulation, enabling a selective fiber stimulation, and indicated that µM-VNS might provide an alternative technology to VNS with fewer heart-related side effects, such as bradyarrhythmia.

References

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Cognition-enhancing effect of vagus nerve stimulation in patients with Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study.

A positive effect of VNS on cognition in patients with Alzheimer's disease is suggested, and its side effects were mild and transient.

Vagus nerve stimulation in drug-resistant daily chronic migraine with depression: preliminary data

The preliminary results in this small case series support a beneficial effect of chronic VNS on both drug-refractory CM and depression, and suggest this novel treatment as a valid alternative for this otherwise intractable and highly disabling condition.

Vagus nerve stimulation to augment recovery from severe traumatic brain injury impeding consciousness: a prospective pilot clinical trial

The hypothesis is that stimulation of the vagus nerve results in increased cerebral blood flow and metabolism in the forebrain, thalamus, and reticular formation, which promotes arousal and improved consciousness, thereby improving outcome after TBI resulting in MCS or VS.

Neural networks and the anti-inflammatory effect of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation in depression

The anatomic foundation of taVNS is outlined and it is emphasized that it significantly modulates the activity and connectivity of a wide range of neural networks, including the default mode network, executive network, and networks involved in emotional and reward circuits, which suggests a link between the suppression of inflammation and changes in brain regions/circuits post taV NS.

Microglia modulation through external vagus nerve stimulation in a murine model of Alzheimer's disease

Overall, these experiments show strong morphological changes in microglia, from a neurodestructive to a neuroprotective phenotype, following a brief nVNS in aged animals, especially in APP/PS1 animals, whereasmicroglia from young animals were morphologically unaffected.
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