Vaginal malformations: a proposed classification based on embryological, anatomical and clinical criteria and their surgical management (an analysis of 167 cases)


Although it is virtually impossible to formulate a scheme that can satisfactorily collect all different types of vaginal malformations, a simple classification would be of a considerable value and would permit logical operative decisions. Many classifications of anomalies of uterus and vagina have been proposed: we find them unsatisfactory and confusing, being either too simple or too complex. We propose a new classification, focused only on vagina and based on embryological, anatomical, clinical and surgical criteria. In over 30 years, 167 females with vaginal malformations have been observed in our department. Intersex cases were excluded. The encountered anomalies have been divided into six types and ten subtypes: type I vaginal agenesis (IA associated with uterine agenesis/17 Pts, IB isolated/1 Pt); type II vaginal atresia (IIA proximal/1 Pt, IIB distal/4 Pts); type III vaginal atresia with urethrovaginal fistula—urogenital sinus (IIIA proximal fistula—high sinus/42 Pts, IIIB distal fistula—low sinus/55 Pts); type IV vaginal atresia with transverse septum (IVA transverse septum/6 Pts, IVB imperforate hymen/17 Pts); type V disorders of müllerian ducts fusion (VA vaginal duplication/4 Pts, VB longitudinal septum/4 Pts); type VI cloaca/16 Pts. Of each type and subgroup of malformation the appropriate surgical correction is reported. Types of malformation and surgical treatment are analysed: IA vaginal reconstruction using a sigmoid conduit, IB vaginal reconstruction using a sigmoid conduit, atresic cervical resection and uterus-new vagina anastomosis according to Schmid; II perineal vaginal pull-through; IIIA anterior sagittal transanorectal vaginal pull-through, IIIB perineal flap vaginoplasty; IVA excision with abdominovaginal approach, IVB hymen incision; VA tubularization, VB septectomy via perineal approach; VI posterior sagittal anorectal-vaginal-urethroplasty. Most of the patients had good aesthetic and functional results. Type III showed relatively more complications: four redo operations (IIIA), four revisions of the vaginoplasty (IIIB). One patient is still waiting for definitive surgical correction. An early diagnosis is desirable to correct adequately vaginal malformations, which becomes mostly evident around puberty. The better timing for surgery is early age, to obtain better results and to avoid many of the psychological problems that arise at a later age.

DOI: 10.1007/s00383-012-3121-7

2 Figures and Tables

Citations per Year

Citation Velocity: 11

Averaging 11 citations per year over the last 3 years.

Learn more about how we calculate this metric in our FAQ.

Cite this paper

@article{Ruggeri2012VaginalMA, title={Vaginal malformations: a proposed classification based on embryological, anatomical and clinical criteria and their surgical management (an analysis of 167 cases)}, author={Giovanni Ruggeri and Tommaso Gargano and Claudio Antonellini and Veronica Carlini and Beatrice Randi and Francesca Destro and Mario Lima}, journal={Pediatric Surgery International}, year={2012}, volume={28}, pages={797-803} }