Vaccinia Virus Uses Macropinocytosis and Apoptotic Mimicry to Enter Host Cells

@article{Mercer2008VacciniaVU,
  title={Vaccinia Virus Uses Macropinocytosis and Apoptotic Mimicry to Enter Host Cells},
  author={Jason Mercer and Ari Helenius},
  journal={Science},
  year={2008},
  volume={320},
  pages={531 - 535}
}
Viruses employ many different strategies to enter host cells. Vaccinia virus, a prototype poxvirus, enters cells in a pH-dependent fashion. Live cell imaging showed that fluorescent virus particles associated with and moved along filopodia to the cell body, where they were internalized after inducing the extrusion of large transient membrane blebs. p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) was activated by the virus, and the endocytic process had the general characteristics of macropinocytosis. The… 

Cellular microbiology: Virus plays dead

  • A. Heinrichs
  • Biology
    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology
  • 2008
TLDR
Viral PS might be analogous to cellular PS and triggers the uptake of virus particles by mimicking apoptotic bodies and late-stage vaccinia-infected cells were shown to undergo apoptosis, indicating that blebbing is required for infection.

Poxvirus host cell entry.

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This review focuses on the cell biology of virus entry and the different strategies and endocytic mechanisms used by animal viruses.

Late-penetrating viruses.

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For viruses that use their glycans and/or lipids as attachment/internalization factors, additional entry steps, such as binding within the endosomal compartment to a cellular receptor that stimulates fusion events, are required for productive infection.

Acrylamide Inhibits Vaccinia Virus Through Vimentin-independent Anti-Viral Granule Formation

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It is concluded that vimentin is dispensable for poxvirus replication and assembly and that acrylamide, as a potent inducer of AVGs during VACV infection, serves to bolster cell’s antiviral response to poXvirus infection.
...

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