Vaccines: past, present and future

  title={Vaccines: past, present and future},
  author={Stanley A. Plotkin},
  journal={Nature Medicine},
  volume={11 Suppl 1},
The vaccines developed over the first two hundred years since Jenner's lifetime have accomplished striking reductions of infection and disease wherever applied. Pasteur's early approaches to vaccine development, attenuation and inactivation, are even now the two poles of vaccine technology. Today, purification of microbial elements, genetic engineering and improved knowledge of immune protection allow direct creation of attenuated mutants, expression of vaccine proteins in live vectors… CONTINUE READING