Vaccine safety: Analysis of oral polio vaccine CHAT stocks

  title={Vaccine safety: Analysis of oral polio vaccine CHAT stocks},
  author={Neil J. Berry and Clare Davis and Adrian Jenkins and David J Wood and Philip D. Minor and Geoffrey C. Schild and M. Bottiger and Harvey Holmes and Neil M. Almond},
Batches of experimental oral vaccines against poliovirus (OPV CHAT) that were administered in Central Africa in the 1950s have been implicated in the origin of the AIDS pandemic because of possible retroviral contamination during the vaccine's manufacture, which allegedly involved chimpanzee kidney cells. Here we use a molecular analysis to show that two CHAT type-1 polio vaccine stocks were prepared from macaque and not chimpanzee cells, and contain neither human nor simian immunodeficiency… 
Simian cytomegalovirus and contamination of oral poliovirus vaccines.
Oral poliovirus seeds, vaccine bulks and vaccines themselves are evaluated for the presence of a common contaminant of AGMK cultures, simian cytomegalovirus (SCMV) using sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques.
Origin of AIDS: Contaminated polio vaccine theory refuted
It is shown that SIVcpz is indeed endemic in wild chimpanzees of this region but that the circulating virus is phylogenetically distinct from all strains of HIV-1, providing direct evidence that these chimpanzees were not the source of the human AIDS pandemic.
Mitochondrial DNA and retroviral RNA analyses of archival oral polio vaccine (OPV CHAT) materials: evidence of macaque nuclear sequences confirms substrate identity.
Detailed analyses of two samples of OPV, CHAT 10A-11 and CHAT 6039/Yugo, which were used in early human trials of poliovirus vaccination, provide no evidence to support the contention that poliov virus vaccination was responsible for the introduction of HIV into humans and sparking the AIDS pandemic.
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To assess the prevalence of SIV in bonobos, a serologic survey of 26 bonobos was performed and found that bonobos and the use of their tissues may pose a potential risk for cross-species transmission of other etiologic agents.
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    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
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It seems to me that the oral polio vaccine (OPV) hypothesis for the origins of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic is less tenable now than one year earlier.
Lentivirus infections and mechanisms of disease resistance in chimpanzees.
The history of HIV-1 infection in this species as well as the observations that have led to some of the current leading hypotheses regarding the resistance to AIDS in naturally infected African primates are reviewed.
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Sequencing confirmed that the SH gene of the mumps virus in the unpassaged clinical specimens was identical to the L-Zagreb SH gene in the vaccine.
The Evolution of Primate Lentiviruses and the Origins of AIDS
The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first recognized in 1981 (Blattner, 1991) and has become the most globally devastating of the emerging infectious diseases threatening human health
Cross-species infections.
  • R. Weiss
  • Biology, Medicine
    Current topics in microbiology and immunology
  • 2003
Cross-species viral and other infections are reviewed historically with respect to the evolution of virulence and the concern about iatrogenic enhancement of cross-species transfer by medical procedures akin to xenotransplantation.
Challenges to vaccine safety.
Scientific data relating to current vaccine safety concerns is reviewed, showing the promise that vaccines will become even safer, but there is also the threat that ill-founded concerns will result in reduced immunization rates, and diseases will resurge.


Tests fail to support claims for origin of AIDS in polio vaccine
LondonAnalysis by three separate laboratories of samples of polio vaccine used in the late 1950s have revealed no evidence of contamination with a virus of chimpanzee origin that may have been at the
AIDS as a zoonosis: scientific and public health implications.
Evidence of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection has been reported for 26 different species of African nonhuman primates and the implications of human infection by a diverse set of SIVs and of exposure to a plethora of additional human immunodewirable viruses are discussed.
An African HIV-1 sequence from 1959 and implications for the origin of the epidemic
Multiple phylogenetic analyses not only authenticate this case as the oldest known HIV-1 infection, but also place its viral sequence near the ancestral node of subtypes B and D in the major group, indicating that these HIV- 1 subtypes, and perhaps all major-group viruses, may have evolved from a single introduction into the African population not long before 1959.
Low peripheral blood viral HIV-2 RNA in individuals with high CD4 percentage differentiates HIV-2 from HIV-1 infection.
Low levels of HIV-2 replication and virion expression characterize individuals with high CD4+ lymphocyte counts, suggesting that a very different dynamic equilibrium exists between virus and host for HIV- 2 compared with HIV-1.
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The thesis: that the origins of both HIV-1 and HIV-2 result from contamination of poliovirus vaccines in the last half of the 1950s by simian immunodeficiency viruses of chimpanzees forAIDS-1, or mangabeys for HIV- 2, is presented in The River is wide.
The river : a journey back to the source of HIV and AIDS
Examines the possible source of HIV, analyzing a number of theories concerning its origins and investigating current scientific inquiries into HIV, AIDS, and the search for a cure.
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