Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an economically important viral disease with worldwide distribution. Every country with an intensive poultry industry has infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The virus rapidly spreads from bird to bird through horizontal transmission by aerosol or ingestion. Sentinel bird studies were carried out in southern Ontario and IBV has been isolated from layer flocks. Genetic analysis of the S1 region of the strains showed that they were not vaccine related. The pathogenicity of selected Ontario variants of IBV isolates was studied and the subsequent work was to determine the degree of protection against field isolates provided by a commonly used vaccine MILDVAC-Ma5 in Ontario. The protection was evaluated by challenging immunized chickens with the respiratory (IBV-ON1) and nephropathogenic (IBV-ON4) viruses. The mean vaccine efficacy for IBV-ON1 was 66.7% indicating that a Massachusetts serotype vaccine would provide some protection against IBV field isolates.