Vaccination with irradiated tumor cells engineered to secrete murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulates potent, specific, and long-lasting anti-tumor immunity.

@article{Dranoff1993VaccinationWI,
  title={Vaccination with irradiated tumor cells engineered to secrete murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulates potent, specific, and long-lasting anti-tumor immunity.},
  author={Glenn Dranoff and Elizabeth Jaffee and Audrey S. Lazenby and Paul T. Golumbek and Hyam I. Levitsky and Katja Brose and Vaughn E Jackson and Hiroshi Hamada and Drew Pardoll and Richard C. Mulligan},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  year={1993},
  volume={90 8},
  pages={3539-43}
}
To compare the ability of different cytokines and other molecules to enhance the immunogenicity of tumor cells, we generated 10 retroviruses encoding potential immunomodulators and studied the vaccination properties of murine tumor cells transduced by the viruses. Using a B16 melanoma model, in which irradiated tumor cells alone do not stimulate significant anti-tumor immunity, we found that irradiated tumor cells expressing murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF… CONTINUE READING
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