Vaccination with Rev and Tat against AIDS.

  title={Vaccination with Rev and Tat against AIDS.},
  author={A. Osterhaus and C. V. van Baalen and R. Gruters and M. Schutten and C. H. Siebelink and E. Hulskotte and E. Tijhaar and R. Randall and G. van Amerongen and A. Fleuchaus and V. Erfle and G. Sutter},
  volume={17 20-21},
Intro: More than 15 years after the discovery of HIV-1 as the causative agent of AIDS, and numerous attempts to develop a vaccine, it has become clear that the efficacy of the currently considered HIV-1 vaccine candidates will generally be limited. This is at least in part due to the relative resistance of so-called primary HIV strains to neutralization by HIV-1 envelope specific antibodies: even the most potent HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies failed to provide protection in in vivo models, at… Expand
Vaccines for the prevention of HIV-1 disease.
Clinical investigation in humans and experimental lentivirus infection in nonhuman primates could form the basis for the development of candidate AIDS vaccines that would prevent infection, suppress progression to disease or reduce HIV-1 transmission in humans. Expand
HIV-1 Tat vaccines.
The concept that control of viral infection and block of disease onset may be at present a more achievable goal of AIDS vaccine strategies is considered. Expand
HIV-1 Tat-based vaccines: from basic science to clinical trials.
Evidence is provided that the HIV-1 Tat protein is very efficiently taken up by MDDCs and promotes T helper (Th)-1 type immune responses against itself as well as other Ag. Expand
Therapeutic vaccination against HIV
Together with antiviral therapy, it is reported that immunization has provided a prolonged time to virological failure, and it is clear that additional help will be needed from adjuvants and/or modulators that activate natural killer and T-cells, or other immune molecules. Expand
Prospect of a prophylactic vaccine for HIV.
  • T. Hanke
  • Medicine
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With a series of new technologies and increased political and financial commitments, a growing momentum in the field of HIV-vaccine development promises exciting years ahead. Expand
HIV-1 Tat-Based Vaccines: An Overview and Perspectives in the Field of HIV/AIDS Vaccine Development
An overview on the rationale for the use of non-structural HIV proteins, such as the Tat protein, alone or in combination with other HIV early and late structural HIV antigens, as novel, promising preventative and therapeutic HIV/AIDS vaccine strategies is provided. Expand
Nonstructural HIV proteins as targets for prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines.
The experimental evidence that provides the rationale for the use of nonstructural HIV-1 gene products as vaccine antigens is discussed, and the current status and the future development of these novel vaccines are summarized. Expand
Candidate HIV-1 Tat vaccine development: from basic science to clinical trials.
The characteristics of Tat are reviewed and why it was selected for use in avaccine, and the approach may be effective for both preventive and therapeutic vaccinestrategies. Expand
Prospects and challenges for prophylactic and therapeutic HIV vaccines.
The best strategy for controlling the HIV pandemic remains the development of an efficacious prophylactic vaccine. Efficacy trials performed during this decade will yield information on theExpand
New insights into evaluating effective T-cell responses to HIV
There is currently still too little known about the antiviral immune responses in both humans and non-human primate studies to directly and accurately compare their similarities and differences and to draw any definitive conclusions. Expand


Progress in the development of an HIV-1 vaccine.
The authors' growing understanding of the biology of HIV-1 and immune responses to this virus will continue to suggest improved vaccination approaches for exploration, and considerable effort is now being focused on evaluating live vector-based vaccine and plasmid DNA vaccine approaches for preventing HIV- 1 infection both in animal model and human studies. Expand
Passive immunization with a human monoclonal antibody protects hu-PBL-SCID mice against challenge by primary isolates of HIV-1
The results are encouraging for antibody-based postexposure prophylaxis and support the notion that antibody induction could contribute to an effective vaccine. Expand
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev- and Tat-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte frequencies inversely correlate with rapid progression to AIDS.
It is shown in twelve HIV-1-infected individuals that detection of Rev-specific CTL precursors (CTLp) early in the asymptomatic stage, as well as detection ofRev- and Tat- specific CTLp later during follow-up, inversely correlate with rapid disease progression, in agreement with the hypothesis that CTL against proteins that are important for early viral transcription and translation are of particular importance in protection from rapid Disease progression. Expand
Kinetics of Antiviral Activity by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL) and Rapid Selection of CTL Escape Virus In Vitro
Analysis of antiviral activity of a CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) clone directed against a newly identified HLA-B14-restricted epitope showed that infected cells became susceptible to CTL-mediated lysis before peak virus production but after the onset of progeny virus release, suggesting a model in which CTLs can interfere with viral protein expression during the eclipse phase via noncytolytic mechanisms. Expand
The consequence of passive administration of an anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralizing monoclonal antibody before challenge of chimpanzees with a primary virus isolate
This antibody infusion study indicates that neutralizing antibody, when present at the time of challenge, affects the timing and level of infection and remains influential after it can no longer be detected in the peripheral circulation. Expand
Analysis of intercurrent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infections in phase I and II trials of candidate AIDS vaccines. AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group, and the Correlates of HIV Immune Protection Group.
L Laboratory analysis suggested that vaccine-induced immune responses did not significantly affect the genotypic or phenotypic characteristics of transmitted virus or the early clinical course of HIV-1 infection. Expand
Vaccine-induced virus-neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic T cells do not protect macaques from experimental infection with simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac32H (J5)
The need to clarify the roles of the different arms of the immune system in conferring protection against primate lentivirus infections is illustrated, as none of the monkeys was protected from experimental infection with simian immunodeficiency virus. Expand
Virions of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates resistant to soluble CD4 (sCD4) neutralization differ in sCD4 binding and glycoprotein gp120 retention from sCD4-sensitive isolates
It is suggested that reduced sCD4 binding and increased gp120 retention together account for the relative resistance of these primary isolates to neutralization by s CD4 and CD4-IgG and that virions of different HIV-1 isolates vary both in the mechanism of sCD 4 binding and in subsequent conformational changes in their envelope glycoproteins. Expand