Day-old broilers were administered live and/or inactivated vaccines to assess vaccine efficacy against challenge with Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD). Chicks were from commercial breeder pullets vaccinated against ND and IBD using several live vaccine primers followed by an inactivated ND-IBD vaccine at 18 weeks. The most efficacious initial ND-IBD vaccination program was live ND virus by eye drop and live IBD vaccine injected subcutaneously (SQ) followed 2 hours later with inactivated ND-IBD vaccine SQ. The next two most efficacious programs were live vaccine alone and the inactivated vaccine only. Inactivated vaccine given SQ had no adverse effect on live IBD vaccine given 2 hours earlier in a similar site. Administration of inactivated vaccine by vent was not as efficacious as administration SQ. A booster of a second live ND-IBD vaccine drinking water at 18 days significantly increased levels of circulating antibody, regardless of the initial vaccination program.