Equine influenza virus is a leading cause of respiratory disease in the horse. Equine influenza vaccines containing inactivated virus were first developed in the 1960s. Despite their intensive use, equine influenza outbreaks still continue to occur and therefore new strategies of vaccination are necessary to improve vaccine efficacy. Numerous methods of vaccination have been evaluated and commercialised in the horse, the most recent being the cold-adapted influenza virus and poxvirus-based vaccines. As a large animal model, the horse is also a useful species in which to evaluate the potential of new generations of influenza vaccine such as live-attenuated influenza virus engineered by reverse genetics. This report details the equine immune responses conferring protection against influenza. It then undertakes a selective review of different strategies of vaccination against equine influenza that have been developed over the last two decades and discusses factors that may influence the efficacy of vaccination. Finally it outlines progress in the development of a novel vaccination strategy against equine influenza using reverse genetics.