author={Richard L. Abraham},
  journal={The Condor},
  • R. Abraham
  • Published 24 January 1974
  • Biology
  • The Condor
Qualitative descriptive information on both vocal and visual displays of waterfowl is abundant (e.g., Heinroth 1910, 1911; Lorenz 1953; Weidmann 1956; Johnsgard 1965; McKinney 1965a, 1969, 1970), and quantitative data are available for visual displays of a few species of ducks (e.g., Weidmann 1958; Weidmann and Daily 1971; Simmons and Weidmann 1973; Johnsgard 1960; McKinney 1961, 1965b; Dane et al. 1959; Dane and van der Kloot 1964; Field 1970). But quantitative data on vocal displays of adult… 
Biology and Conservation of the Laysan Duck (Anas laysanensis)
-A two-summer, mark-recapture study of Laysan Ducks (Anus laysanensis) resulted in a population estimate of 5 10 birds with over 90% of the birds marked. Individuals seemed long-lived with the low
Vocal recognition of a nest-predator in black grouse
Black grouse recognized raven calls and were alerted, displaying typical neck stretching, followed by head scanning, and eventual escape, and surprisingly, males tended to react faster and exhibited a longer duration of vigilance behavior compared to females.
Acoustic Differences between the Scoters Melanitta nigra nigra and m. n. americana
Scoter vocalizations may have a role in pair formation and pair bonding and support recent proposals to treat M. n.
Vocal repertoire, harmonic structure, and behavioural context in Red-throated Loon (Gavia stellata)
Although the majority of acoustical descriptions are limited to a single nesting pair where sexes could be differentiated, these represent the first quantification of sound frequency, harmonic structure, and duration, and are suggestive of syntactical content to the vocal repertoire of this basal taxon.
Acoustical comparison between decrescendo calls of female mallards and mimicry by humans using artificial duck calls
This study compared acoustic features of field recordings of the decrescendo calls of wild female mallards with those of duck callers and found that cocobolo, osage orange, pecan, acrylic, and bocote calls with double reeds produced notes acoustically most similar to female mallarddecrescendos.
Spacing and Three-bird Flights of mallards breeding in pothole habitat
Wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were observed in pothole habitat near Minnedosa, Manitoba and territorial behaviour was most pronounced during a brief period from just prior to laying until early incubation.
Analysis of mallard’s (Anas platyrhynchos) behavior depending on phenology period and the size of the flock on water basins in Szczecin
The results show that the most active period for Mallard's Anas platyrhynchos are the autumn and winter months (pairing period), while more aggressive behaviours can be observed when the population density is high.


A Preliminary Analysis of the Decrescendo Call in Female Mallards (Anas Pla Tyrhynchos L.)
The conditions necessary for the elicitation of this call were studied in captive, paired female Mallards, Anas platyrhynchos, in both outdoor and indoor pens andaired females gave significantly more calls when visually isolated from their mates than when their mates were present.
A Quantitative Study of Sexual Behavior of Mallards and Black Ducks
The results of this general study indicate that the Black Duck is much more closely related to the Mallard than is generally supposed and that the two forms should probably be considered to be only subspecifically distinct.
An Analysis of the Display of the Goldeneye Duck (b uCephala Clang Ula (L.))
A quantitative analysis of the sexual display of the Goldeneye duck revealed that individuals are more stereotyped in the performance of their actions than the population, and that individuals can sometimes be classed as "fast" or "slow" in their performance.
Three-bird flights in the Mallard
In North Kent, three-bird flights performed during the nesting season are not territorial in the Mallard or the Shoveler, and behaviour of paired drakes during Mallard flights indicates a polygamous tendency.
  • P. Bateson
  • Psychology
    Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
  • 1966
The primary object of this article is to reconsider the characteristics of imprinting and the ways in which they have been interpreted.
Electrical Stimulation of Agonistic Behavior in the Mallard
Electrical stimulation of the brain of unanesthetized, freely moving adult Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) produced response patterns characteristic of the aggressive and escape behaviors of this species, suggesting that the different patterns of escape behaviors have different neuroanatomical distributions.
Observations on sound production in the Anatidae
A comparison of inter-species variations in the tracheal anatomy and acoustical characteristics of anatid vocalizations supports the contention that the trachea serves as a resonating tube, thus
The comfort movements of Anatidae.
Almost all comfort movements are of universal occurrence in basic situations in the family; the few specific variations represent adaptations to different ways of life, and are of very limited use as indicators of taxonomic relationships.
Tracheal Anatomy of the Anatidae and its taxonomic significance
Tracheal and syringeal variations in waterfowl are summarized, based on a tracheal collection representing 84 out of the 143 species of Anatidae, and specializations of the bronchi,tracheal tube, and musculature are frequent.
The Critical Period and the Interval Between Hatching and Exodus in Mallard Ducklings
Ducklings that are hatched in hole-nests are older at the time of exodus than are ducklings from the more usual mallard-nest situated on the ground, a factor contributing to this might be that the possibilities for visual and thus also for auditory imprinting are very limited.