author={Irene M. Pepperberg},
  journal={The Auk},
in the code, and the interactive aspect provides explicit training that is constantly adjusted to the level of the learner. To obtain information on the relative importance of these three aspects of input on learning in a mimetic species, I used three different conditions to train two juvenile Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus) to produce English labels to identify various common objects. Each bird experienced: (1) audiotaped tutoring, which was nonreferential, noninteractive, and did not… 

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Vocal learning in the Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus): effects of species identity and number of trainers.

Specific aspects of paired tutoring seem critical for acquiring referential vocal labels, and 2-trainer modeling with training by 1 human who presented targeted labels to a bird in concert with appropriate items, who asked questions, and who would reward attempts at the label with the item.

Effect of avian-human joint attention on allospecific vocal learning by grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus).

The authors contrasted training in which joint attention was present or absent and found that 2 parrots did not learn in the absence of joint attention but did learn English labels when full interaction was present.

Mirror Use by African Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus)

Two Grey parrots were tested on various types of mirror use: mirror image stimulation, mirror-mediated object discrimination, and a simple form of mirror- mediated spatial locating; these birds are the first nonmammalian subjects to exhibit all these behavior patterns.

Social context influences the vocalizations of a home-raised African Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus).

The results challenge the notion that parrots only imitate speech and raise interesting questions regarding the role of social interaction in learning and communicative competence in an avian species.

Acoustic Characteristics of Phonological Development in a Juvenile African Grey Parrot (Psittacus Erithacus) Who Is Learning Referential Speech

Although young children can sometimes produce words in a near perfect form at a very early stage, several diary studies revealed that these correct first productions are usually followed by less

Number comprehension by a grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus), including a zero-like concept.

A Grey parrot that was able to quantify 6 item sets using English labels and demonstrated knowledge of absence of quantity, using "none" to designate zero demonstrated numerical comprehension competence comparable to that of chimpanzees and very young children.

In Search of King Solomon’s Ring: Cognitive and Communicative Studies of Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus)

Examining how input affects the extent to which parrots acquire an allospecific code may elucidate mechanisms of other forms of exceptional learning: learning unlikely in the normal course of development but that can occur under certain conditions.

Vocal imitation in blindfolded zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) is facilitated in the presence of a non-singing conspecific female

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It is concluded that physical contact in the absence of visual cues is sufficient for song imitation to occur and demonstrates an instance of social stimulation by non-singing females in the song acquisition of male songbirds.



A Review of the Effects of Social Interaction On Vocal Learning in African Grey Parrots (Psittacus Erithacus)

My studies on African Grey parrots demonstrate that social interaction is important for vocal learning even in a mimetic species and preliminary data show that in the early stages of learningGrey parrots will not acquire an allospecific code from exposure to video or audio input but will readily learn from human tutors.

Social Learning of Vocal Patterns and Modes of their Application in Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus)1,2,3

We have developed a method which allowed us to teach Grey Parrots special vocal patterns with a good success. The birds uttered these in antiphonal duets (Fig. 1, Table 1). The duets were performed

Numerical competence in an African gray parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

An African gray parrot (Psittacus erithacus), Alex, trained to label vocally collections of 1-6 simultaneously presented homogeneous objects, correctly identified, without further training,

Proficient performance of a conjunctive, recursive task by an African gray parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

The comprehension skills of an African gray parrot, Alex, were tested on a taks that included a conjunctive condition and indicated that he understood all the elements in the question, including the conj unctive condition, and that he used these elements to guide his search for the one object in the collection that provided the requested information.

Acquisition of the same/different concept by an African Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus): Learning with respect to categories of color, shape, and material

An African Grey parrot, previously taught to use vocal English labels to discriminate more than 80 different objects and to respond to questions concerning categorical concepts of color and shape,

Referential mapping: A technique for attaching functional significance to the innovative utterances of an African Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus)

ABSTRACT A set of procedures called referential mapping has been used to assign meaning to spontaneous vocalizations of an African Grey parrot. These spontaneous vocalizations were combinations and

Cognition in the African Grey parrot: Preliminary evidence for auditory/vocal comprehension of the class concept

An African Grey parrot, previously taught to discriminate more than 40 objects by means of vocal labels, has now acquired a limited understanding of abstract class concepts. The subject, Alex, can

What Studies on Learning can Teach us about Playback Design

This chapter discusses how birds are affected by the singing behaviour of other individuals: interactions that demonstrate how communication might occur, provide feedback on whether information has been transferred, or encourage the development of different forms of communication in different contexts.