author={David A. Snow and Louis A. Zurcher and Robert Peters},
  journal={Symbolic Interaction},
Drawing on data derived from a field study of victory celebrations, this paper suggests a dramaturgical approach to crowd behavior. Existing theories of crowd behavior are either contradicted by the field data or do not adequately account for the heterogeneity of activity observed, for the interaction between the various categories of participants, or for the shifts in the behavior of the participants and the resultant change in the character of the celebrations. Subsequent analysis indicates… 

A Dramaturgical Analysis of Male Strippers

se t t i ngs or situations with physical and time boundaries-commonly referred to as “contextually bounded activity systems” in the sociological literature-especially deviant interactional settings,

A Further Examination of Anonymity, Contagion, and Deindividuation in Crowd and Collective Behavior

Abstract A recent wave of research promotes the idea that anonymity or deindividuation precipitates collective behavior. Specifically, anonymous individuals are more likely to participate in

Resistance as a Social Drama: A Study of Change‐Oriented Encounters1

Resistance is a change‐oriented process that follows certain stereotyped sequences of behaviors. These sequences are promulgated by intentional actors who cue cultural forms (rituals) in order to

Blumer's Theory of Collective Behavior: The Development of a Non-Symbolic Interaction Explanation

The development of a transformation explanation for collective behavior is traced from LeBon's theory of crowd mind, through Park's dissertation on rational and critical discussion in publics versus

Situational Analysis and Social Movements

The notion of situational analysis has different origins. The most relevant, historically, are Max Gluckman's ethnography of a conventional crowd, that met at the “inauguration of a bridge in

A Study of Norm Formation Dynamics in Online Crowds

In extreme events such as the Egyptian 2011 uprising, online social media technology enables many people from heterogeneous backgrounds to interact in response to the crisis. This form of

Social Psychological Perspectives on Crowds and Social Movements

Historically, the study of crowds and social movements has been animated by three broad and inclusive questions: What are the conditions underlying the emergence or mobilization of the collective

Crowds (Gatherings) and Collective Behavior (Action)

Crowds, or temporary gatherings as some scholars prefer (McPhail 1991), are a ubiquitous feature of everyday life. People have long assembled to observe, to celebrate, and to protest various

Understanding the Bystander Audience in Online Incivility Encounters: Conceptual Issues and Future Research Questions

This paper presents a theoretical exploration of how and why the 1960’s bystander theory is a valuable lens through which to study contemporary uncivil online communication, particularly in user



Collective Behavior: An Examination of Some Stereotypes

Current conceptualizations of the acting crowd are heavily influenced by LeBon, particularly those aspects of LeBon's formulation that emphasized the pathological and bizarre nature of crowd

Zoot-Suiters and Mexicans: Symbols in Crowd Behavior

Content analysis is used to test a hypotesis that over hostile crowd behavior is preceded by the development of an unambigously unfavorable symbol. The Los Angeles "zoot-suit riots" of 1943 provide

Life as theater: Some notes on the dramaturgic approach to social reality.

The aim of this paper is to raise some questions about the uses of the "dramaturgic approach" 1 to social experience, a mode of analysis finding increasing use in social-psychological circles. In

Issueless Riots

Recent work on collective violence has produced a needed corrective to the one-sided image of riotous crowds held by earlier theorists. But we have failed to give adequate attention to instances of

Collective Behavior: The Sense of a Rubric

The relevance of the traditional conceptualization of collective behavior is examined and the contributions of the collective behaviorists to dramaturgical social psychology and general sociology are specified.

A Gaming Approach to Crowd Behavior

Social science analyses which try to incorporate human mental processes are fraught with problems. The very existence of "mind" as a distinct structure has been debated at length with no resolution

Neglected Characteristics of Collective Behavior

Current development of a more sociological analysis of collective behavior has concentrated on the social characteristics of its conditions and its consequences. The bahavior itself is less clearly

A Critical Note on Conceptions of Collective Behavior

"Collective behavior" theory has its roots in antidemocratic theorists of nineteenth century Europe, espe cially LeBon. American sociologists have modified but not eliminated these biases,

Two Critics in Search of a Bias: A Response to Currie and Skolnick

This essay is mainly a response to the foregoing one, in which Elliott Currie and Jerome Skolnick attempt to find an antidemocratic, irrationalist, "LeBonist" bias in my book, Theory of Collective

Student Walkout: A Fortuitous Examination of Elementary Collective Behavior

The traditional separation of explanations of collective behavior and routine social behavior is noted. Blumer's work is examined as representative of and influential in maintaining this separation.