V Photon Wave Function

  title={V Photon Wave Function},
  author={Iwo Bialynicki-Birula},
  journal={Progress in Optics},

The Photon Wave Function

The properties of a wave equation for a six-component wave function of a photon are re-analyzed. It is shown that the wave equation presents all the properties required by quantum mechanics, except

Interpretation of the photon: wave–particle duality

A simple model is provided to obtain the space–time probability-distribution function of a photon emitted without recoil by an excited system (atom, nucleus, …) in one dimension. A three-dimensional

Photon wave functions, wave-packet quantization of light, and coherence theory

The monochromatic Dirac and polychromatic Titulaer–Glauber quantized field theories (QFTs) of electromagnetism are derived from a photon-energy wave function in much the same way that one derives QFT

Photon states from propagating complex electromagnetic fields

A wave function for single- and many-photon states is defined by associating photons with different momenta with different spectral and polarization components of the classical, generally complex,

Wave Function of a Photon and the Appropriate Lagrangian

In electromagnetic theory, Maxwell's equations are usually regarded as classical ones, but they can be rewritten to have a form like the Dirac equation in relativistic quantum mechanics. We show

Hamilton–Jacobi approach to photon wave mechanics: near‐field aspects

The Hamilton–Jacobi theory of classical point‐particle mechanics is reviewed, and an eikonal theory for free photons is established, and it appears that the ekonal condition contains complicated space integrals of the gradient of the eIKonal over volumes of near‐field domain size.

Vacuum source-field correlations and advanced waves in quantum optics

The solution to the wave equation as a Cauchy problem with prescribed fields at an initial time t=0 is purely retarded. Similarly, in the quantum theory of radiation the specification of Heisenberg

Lorentz covariance of optical Dirac equation and spinorial photon field

In a recent paper (2014 New J. Phys. 16 093008) Barnett discussed the so-called optical Dirac equation and referred to the involved wave function as a spinor. But as he claimed explicitly, he did not

Quantized Vector Potential and the Photon Wave-function

The vector potential function α→kλ(r→,t) for a k-mode and λ-polarization photon, with the quantized amplitude α0k(ωk) = ξωk, satisfies the classical wave propagation equation as well as the



On the Wave Function of the Photon

It is believed that certain matrix elements of the electromagnetic field operators in quantum electrodynamics, in close analogy with nonrelativistic quantum theory of massive particles, may be

Photon wave functions and the exact electromagnetic matrix elements for hydrogenic atoms

After reviewing th eproperties of the photon considered as a quantized particle of zero mass, positive energy, and unit spin, the expansion of the unquantized and quantized electromagnetic fields and


In this paper it is shown that Maxwell's theory of the electromagnetic field in vacuum can be stated in a form closely parallel to Dirac's theory of the electron. The electromagnetic field is

Phase-space structure of the Dirac vacuum.

The phase-space correlation function for the Dirac vacuum in the presence of simple field configurations is studied and a closed system of integro-differential equations is obtained neglecting the quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field as should be appropriate for strong fields.

Group Theoretical Discussion of Relativistic Wave Equations.

  • V. BargmannE. Wigner
  • Physics
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1948
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80 Years of Professor Wigner's Seminal Work "On Unitary Representations of the Inhomogeneous Lorentz Group"

It is perhaps the most fundamental principle of Quantum Mechanics that the system of states forms a linear manifold,1 in which a unitary scalar product is defined.2 The states are generally

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