V Photon Wave Function

  title={V Photon Wave Function},
  author={Iwo Bialynicki-Birula},
  journal={Progress in Optics},

The Photon Wave Function

The properties of a wave equation for a six-component wave function of a photon are re-analyzed. It is shown that the wave equation presents all the properties required by quantum mechanics, except

Interpretation of the photon: wave–particle duality

A simple model is provided to obtain the space–time probability-distribution function of a photon emitted without recoil by an excited system (atom, nucleus, …) in one dimension. A three-dimensional

Photon wave functions, wave-packet quantization of light, and coherence theory

The monochromatic Dirac and polychromatic Titulaer–Glauber quantized field theories (QFTs) of electromagnetism are derived from a photon-energy wave function in much the same way that one derives QFT

Photon states from propagating complex electromagnetic fields

A wave function for single- and many-photon states is defined by associating photons with different momenta with different spectral and polarization components of the classical, generally complex,

Wave Function of a Photon and the Appropriate Lagrangian

In electromagnetic theory, Maxwell's equations are usually regarded as classical ones, but they can be rewritten to have a form like the Dirac equation in relativistic quantum mechanics. We show

Quantized Field of Single Photons

  • C. Meis
  • Physics
    Single Photon Manipulation
  • 2020
We present theoretical developments expressing the physical characteristics of a single photon in conformity with the experimental evidence. The quantization of the electromagnetic field vector

Hamilton–Jacobi approach to photon wave mechanics: near‐field aspects

The Hamilton–Jacobi theory of classical point‐particle mechanics is reviewed, and an eikonal theory for free photons is established, and it appears that the ekonal condition contains complicated space integrals of the gradient of the eIKonal over volumes of near‐field domain size.

Vacuum source-field correlations and advanced waves in quantum optics

The solution to the wave equation as a Cauchy problem with prescribed fields at an initial time t=0 is purely retarded. Similarly, in the quantum theory of radiation the specification of Heisenberg

Lorentz covariance of optical Dirac equation and spinorial photon field

In a recent paper (2014 New J. Phys. 16 093008) Barnett discussed the so-called optical Dirac equation and referred to the involved wave function as a spinor. But as he claimed explicitly, he did not



On the Wave Function of the Photon

It is believed that certain matrix elements of the electromagnetic field operators in quantum electrodynamics, in close analogy with nonrelativistic quantum theory of massive particles, may be

Photon wave functions and the exact electromagnetic matrix elements for hydrogenic atoms

After reviewing th eproperties of the photon considered as a quantized particle of zero mass, positive energy, and unit spin, the expansion of the unquantized and quantized electromagnetic fields and


In this paper it is shown that Maxwell's theory of the electromagnetic field in vacuum can be stated in a form closely parallel to Dirac's theory of the electron. The electromagnetic field is

Phase-space structure of the Dirac vacuum.

The phase-space correlation function for the Dirac vacuum in the presence of simple field configurations is studied and a closed system of integro-differential equations is obtained neglecting the quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field as should be appropriate for strong fields.

Group Theoretical Discussion of Relativistic Wave Equations.

  • V. BargmannE. Wigner
  • Physics
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1948
1 — The wave functions, ψ, describing the possible states of a quantum mechanical system form a linear vector space V which, in general,. is infinite dimensional and on which a positive definite

Quantum theory of radiative transfer

Stemming from the classic work of Planck, classical radiative transfer theory works with pencils of light rays streaming in straight lines in any homogeneous medium. But light is described by

Quantum Electrodynamics

THE subject of quantum electrodynamics is extremely difficult, even for the case of a single electron. The usual method of solving the corresponding wave equation leads to divergent integrals. To

Evolution of the modern photon

The term ‘‘photon’’ represents at least four distinct models and carries different connotations for students and for practicing physicists. This reflects the long and complex historical evolution of

Quantum electrodynamics of intense photon beams. New approximation method

We develop a new approximation method for determining resonance properties of atomic systems interacting with intense photon beams. This method, based on an improved iteration procedure, leads to

Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics

Preface 1. Elements of probability theory 2. Random (or stochastic) processes 3. Some useful mathematical techniques 4. Second-order coherence theory of scalar wavefields 5. Radiation from sources of