Utterance modifiers and universals of grammatical borrowing

@inproceedings{Matras1998UtteranceMA,
  title={Utterance modifiers and universals of grammatical borrowing},
  author={Y. Matras},
  year={1998}
}
Members of a functional category that I tentatively call utterance modifiers are the most vulnerable items to contact-related linguistic change in grammar. Utterance modifiers regulate linguistic-mental processing activities that can be attributed to a grammar of directing. Bilinguals, when faced with the tension of choosing among the systems at their disposal in what is a highly automaticized operation, are tempted to reduce the overt representation of the grammar of directing to just one set… 

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