Utility of the Electroencephalogram in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

@article{Millichap2011UtilityOT,
  title={Utility of the Electroencephalogram in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder},
  author={J. Gordon Millichap and John J. Millichap and Cynthia V. Stack},
  journal={Clinical EEG and Neuroscience},
  year={2011},
  volume={42},
  pages={180 - 184}
}
An electroencephalogram (EEG) has not been routinely utilized in the evaluation of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The utility of the EEG in ADHD is unclear. A recent study in our laboratory using sleep and sleep deprivation routinely found one in four non-epileptic children evaluated for attention deficit disorder has epileptiform discharges in the EEG, more than half focal. The majority of abnormalities (97.5%) occur in sleep and sleep-deprived records compared… 

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The Utility of EEG in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Replication Study
TLDR
This work sought to replicate the 2011 results using conventional EEG with the added qEEG technologies of automatic spike detection and low-resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis (LORETA) brain mapping, and showed 32% prevalence of epileptiform discharges, which suggests that an EEG should be considered prior to prescribing stimulant medications.
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The use of EEG in connection with ADHD in children, with emphasis on the diagnosis of comorbid epilepsy, is discussed, with the view that the QEEG variables are artifact-prone and biologically unspecific and should not be used as a stand-alone diagnostic marker.
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TLDR
Stimulant medication can be used safely in ADHD children even in the presence of EEG changes without increased seizure risk, and there is increased percent of normal EEG after treatment to be 86%, which was 68% before stimulant treatment.
Sleep phenotypes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Integration of EEG Into Psychiatric Practice: A Step Toward Precision Medicine for Autism Spectrum Disorder
TLDR
The results find that compared with the healthy population, a large number of patients with ASD have isolated epileptiform discharges despite never having a seizure, and support the use of EEG in children, adolescents, and young adults with ASD, regardless of gender or age.
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